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Open Access Review

Challenges in Diagnosis and Management of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Solid Organ Transplantation

Joanna K. Nelson, Aruna Subramanian
Received: November 30, 2018; Published: February 01, 2019; doi:10.21926/obm.transplant.1901047

Abstract: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections are relatively rare but carry significant morbidity in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Given the rarity of disease and diagnostic limitations, a high index of suspicion is required for accurate diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment. [...]

Open Access Perspective

Solid Organ Transplantation in Older Adults. Infectious and Other Age-Related Considerations

Marion Hemmersbach-Miller, Cameron R. Wolfe, Kenneth E. Schmader
Received: November 30, 2018; Published: February 01, 2019; doi:10.21926/obm.transplant.1901046

Abstract: In the U.S., older adults aged 65 or above comprise nearly one quarter of the solid organ transplant (SOT) waitlists, and the number of transplants performed in this age group continues to increase. There are no specific guidelines for the assessment and follow up of the aged SOT candidate or recipi [...]

Open Access Case Report

Isolated Hepatic Mucormycosis in the Early Post-Transplant Period: A Case Report and Literature Review

Michael Czapka, Carlos A.Q. Santos, Laurie A. Proia
Received: October 8, 2018; Published: February 1, 2019; doi:10.21926/obm.transplant.1901045

Abstract: Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection associated with high morbidity and mortality that typically afflicts immunocompromised hosts. We present a case of isolated hepatic mucormycosis that developed in the early post-transplant period. Initial presentation was concerning for allograft rejection, bu [...]

Open Access Review

Innate Immune Determinants of Graft-Versus-Host Disease and Bidirectional Immune Tolerance in Allogeneic Transplantation

Anouk A. J. Hamers, Sunil K. Joshi, Asha B. Pillai
Received: September 29, 2018; Published: January 31, 2019; doi:10.21926/obm.transplant.1901044

Abstract: The success of organ and tissue transplantation from a healthy donor to a disease individual (allo-­‐ transplantation) is regulated via the immune systems of donor and recipient. To minimize deleterious immune reactivity between donor and recipient, the major obstacle in transplantati [...]

Open Access Review

Targeting Acute Islet Inflammation to Preserve Graft Mass and Long-Term Function

Carly M. Darden, Srividya Vasu, Kenjiro Kumano, Bashoo Naziruddin, Michael C. Lawrence
Received: November 21, 2018; Published: January 29, 2019; doi:10.21926/obm.transplant.1901043

Abstract: Islet transplantation is a minimally invasive cell based replacement therapy to prevent or reverse diabetes or hypoglycemia through natural hormonal responses to regulate blood glucose. However, extending the islet graft functional lifespan remains a challenge that prevents long-term success and wid [...]

Open Access Review

Where’s Waldo? Extrahepatic Site Options for Islet Transplantation

Alexandria J Coughlan, Kendall R. McEachron, Mariya E. Skube, Sydne Muratore, Melena D. Bellin, Greg J Beilman
Received: October 29, 2018; Published: January 24, 2019; doi:10.21926/obm.transplant.1901042

Abstract: The current predominant location for allo- and auto-transplantation of islet cells is into the liver via the portal venous system. Despite the relative success of this site over the last several decades, further study has revealed multiple disadvantages. Portal hypertension, portal vein thrombosis, [...]

Open Access Research Article

KAS Turns Four: The State of Deceased Donor Kidney Allocation in the U.S.

Darren E. Stewart, Amber R. Wilk, David K. Klassen
Received: December 14, 2018; Published: January 23, 2019; doi:10.21926/obm.transplant.1901041

Abstract: Background: This study examines very recent trends in deceased donor kidney transplantation to assess the performance of the kidney allocation system (KAS), implemented December 4, 2014, and whether bolus effects associated with KAS have stabilized nearly four years after implementation. Method [...]

Open Access Review

Parvovirus B19 Infection in Solid Organ Transplantation: Report of A Case and A Review

Margaret E. Newman, Kenneth Pursell, David Pitrak
Received: November 05, 2018; Published: January 21, 2019; doi:10.21926/obm.transplant.1901040

Abstract: Infection with parvovirus B19 is common, with up to 55% of adults showing seropositive evidence of prior infection. Clinical disease can occur due to acute infection, secondary infection, or reactivation. The clinical presentation of primary infection depends on age, the presence of a hematologic [...]

Open Access Review

Chagas Disease, Leishmaniasis, and Malaria in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

Spinello Antinori, Laura Milazzo
Received: October 28, 2018; Published: January 15, 2019; doi:10.21926/obm.transplant.1901039

Abstract: Solid organ transplantation (SOT) is increasingly employed worldwide to treat several diseases causing either acute and chronic organ failure. Recipients of SOT are at increased risk to develop infections as a consequence of immunosuppressive therapy. Sometimes such infections may be acquired by the [...]

Open Access Review

A Tale of Two Flaviviruses: West Nile Virus and Zika Virus in Solid Organ Transplantation

Makeda L. Robinson, Kyle Enriquez, Dora Y. Ho
Received: November 02, 2018; Published: January 09, 2019; doi:10.21926/obm.transplant.1901038

Abstract: Flaviviruses can cause epidemics and endemics with substantial public health threat and economic impacts. In the last few decades, many flaviviruses have re-emerged or expanded their territories to new regions or continents, including West Nile virus that has become endemic in the US since its arriv [...]

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