Table of Contents

Open Access

ISSN 2577-5820

OBM Transplantation , Volume 3 , Issue 3 (2019)

Pages: 305

Published: October 2019

(This book is a printed edition that was published in OBM Transplantation)

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Cover story: Hematopoietic cell transplantation is frequently involved by infectious complications, with Candidaand enterococci often overlooked as pulmonary pathogens. We present a case series of clinically significant Candida and enterococcal pneumonia found on autopsy in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients, with a review of the literature surrounding these uncommon but significant entities. View this paper.

Volume 3,Issue 3

Open Access Review

Present and Future Strategies with Curative Intent for Hereditary Hemoglobinopathies

Received: 27 February 2019;  Published: 24 September 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.transplant.1903086

Abstract

Nowadays, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a common procedure in Hematology Units within Reference Centres, mainly for the treatment of hematological malignancies such as multiple myeloma, lymphoma and acute leukemia. Nevertheless, HSCT has much wider applications namely in autoimmu [...]

Open Access Review

Infectious Considerations for Patients on Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

Received: 07 July 2019;  Published: 06 September 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.transplant.1903085

Abstract

Chronic inflammatory states lead to T cell exhaustion, characterized by reduced T cell proliferation and activity. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPI) reactivate T cells to restore the immune system’s natural defenses against foreign antigens. The widespread use of these agents in the treatment of m [...]

Open Access Review

Benefits of Combined Liver Transplant: Protection or Tolerance?

Received: 18 April 2019;  Published: 04 September 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.transplant.1903084

Abstract

The privileged liver by its immunological status is described as a tolerogenic organ. However, these alone do not explain the installation of a tolerance after single or combined liver transplantation (kidney, heart, pancreas, intestine). Other factors appear to be involved in the identification of [...]

Open Access Research Article

Characterization of Early Indicators of Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy Lesions in a Rat Model Using Non-Invasive Cellular MR

Received: 07 January 2019;  Published: 29 August 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.transplant.1903083

Abstract

Background: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains a major obstacle to long-term heart allograft survival. A number of studies show that immune mechanisms involved in CAV. Using non-invasive cellular MRI (CMRI) to explore indicators of CAV lesions and characterize its development could provi [...]

Open Access Short Report

Estradiol 17-β Induces Pancreatic Beta-Cell Proliferation through Distinct Estrogen Receptors in a Glucose Dependent Manner

Received: 17 April 2019;  Published: 27 August 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.transplant.1903082

Abstract

Background: Estradiol 17-beta (E2) enhances the function and survival of pancreatic beta-cells but its clinical use has been questioned due to concerns regarding oncogenic potential and feminizing effects in males. The G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), expressed in pancreatic islets, exhib [...]

Open Access Review

Viral Infections in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients: Literature Review

Received: 25 June 2019;  Published: 26 August 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.transplant.1903081

Abstract

Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at an increased risk of bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infections. Past exposures to infections, the degree of immunosuppression, prolonged neutropenia and presence of graft versus host disease (GVHD) are some of the factors which make [...]

Open Access Review

Induction of Tolerance towards Solid Organ Allografts Using Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Large Animal Models

Received: 23 November 2018;  Published: 23 August 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.transplant.1903080

Abstract

Background: The application of hematopoietic cell transplantation for induction of immune tolerance has been limited by toxicities associated with conditioning regimens and to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Decades of animal studies have culminated into sufficient control of these two problems, m [...]

Open Access Original Research

Alemtuzumab Treatment Leads to Delayed Recovery of T Follicular Regulatory Cells, and May Therefore Predispose Patients to de novo Donor-Specific Antibody Formation

Received: 02 June 2019;  Published: 19 August 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.transplant.1903079

Abstract

Background - T follicular helper (Tfh) and regulatory (Tfr) cells are key players in the formation of long-lived antibody responses. Their circulating counterparts, cTfh and cTfr, are often used as biomarkers because longitudinal sampling of secondary lymphoid tissues is unfeasible in clinical studi [...]

Open Access Research Article

Immunoprotective Encapsulation of Micro-Organs

Received: 07 May 2019;  Published: 14 August 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.transplant.1903078

Abstract

Background: Cell encapsulation technology is most likely the ultimate solution for autologous cell therapy based clinical approaches. A key issue when developing a functional encapsulated construct, is to consider not only the nature of the capsule but also how the cells should be incorporated into [...]

Open Access Original Research

Mortality Risk Factors in Patients who are in Heart Transplantation Waiting List

Received: 01 February 2019;  Published: 05 August 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.transplant.1903077

Abstract

Purpose: to estimate the survival of patients in a heart transplantation waiting list (HTxWL) at V.A.Almazov NMRC from 2010 to 2017 and to define risk factors for death among these patients. Materials and methods: A single-centre retrospective study of 151 patients with advanced chronic heart failur [...]

Open Access Research Article

Never Say Never: Unexpected Pulmonary Pathogens Found on Autopsy in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Recipients

Received: 03 June 2019;  Published: 29 July 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.transplant.1903076

Abstract

Hematopoietic cell transplantation is frequently complicated by infectious disease-related complications, especially pneumonia. Candida and enterococci are often overlooked as pulmonary pathogens with some clinicians firmly believing that these organisms never cause pneumonia. Here, we present a ser [...]

Open Access Review

Endemic Mycoses and Cryptococcus in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

Received: 05 April 2019;  Published: 26 July 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.transplant.1903075

Abstract

The endemic mycoses are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. These fungal infections are notable for a dimorphic life cycle, a specific geographic distribution, and typical infection via environmental exposure. Their nonspecific presentation, often mimicking othe [...]

Open Access Review

Our Steps toward Subcutaneous Transplantation of Macro-Encapsulated Islets

Received: 29 May 2019;  Published: 24 July 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.transplant.1903074

Abstract

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) can be cured or greatly ameliorated by adequate insulin secretion from a relatively small volume of insulin-producing cells. Cell encapsulation enables allo- and even xeno-geneic cell therapy without immunosuppression. However, micro-encapsulated islets used in rec [...]

Open Access Review

Nutritional Management for Infants and Children Pre and Post-Liver Transplant

Received: 05 December 2018;  Published: 17 July 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.transplant.1903073

Abstract

Background: Infants and children undergoing liver transplant require ongoing nutritional evaluation throughout the pre and post-transplant period. The pathophysiologic causes of chronic liver disease and acute liver failure are varied, and each present different and unique nutritional challenges. Me [...]

Open Access Review

Single Cell Transcriptomic Analysis of Pancreatic β Cell Development and Differentiation from Pluripotent Stem Cells

Received: 06 May 2019;  Published: 17 July 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.transplant.1903072

Abstract

Single cell genomics is a powerful tool to study cellular heterogeneity and discover novel cell types. Recent studies used single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to analyze the transcriptomes of individual pancreatic islet cells. Islets are a complex mixture of endocrine cells and therefore represen [...]

Open Access Research Article

A Simple and Effective Non-Human Primate Diabetic Model Combining Sub-Total Pancreatectomy and Low-Dose Streptozotocin Injection

Received: 27 March 2019;  Published: 09 July 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.transplant.1903071

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Current non-human primate diabetic models, namely those induced by total pancreatectomy or streptozotocin (STZ) injection, suffer from several disadvantages, including a long surgical procedure, the need for continual digestive enzyme replacement, and a delayed oral intake after total pa [...]

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