Table of Content

Open Access Case Report

A Case Series of Temozolomide in the Management of Refractory Prolactinomas

Received: 12 October 2018;  Published: 01 November 2018;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.1804014


Objective: To report three cases of refractory prolactinomas treated with Temozolomide (TMZ). Background: Prolactinomas account for 40% of pituitary adenomas. Dopamine agonists (DA) are the first line of treatment followed by surgical resection and radiation. TMZ is an oral chemotherapeutic agent used in gliomas, which has been given to patients with prolactinomas refractory to conventional treatments. Methods: Retrospective chart review was conducted for refractory prolactinoma patients treated between 2008 and 20 [...]

862 5984

Open Access Research Article

Isolated Diffusion Restriction Preceding Contrast Enhancement in Glioblastoma Multiforme is Associated with Short-Term Survival

Received: 07 August 2018;  Published: 25 October 2018;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.1804013


Background: Current imaging standard for detecting and assessing glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) progression depends on contrast-enhancement on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Isolated foci of diffusion restriction have been observed to precede enhancement in GBM. The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency of isolated diffusion restriction that precede corresponding enhancement and to investigate if isolated diffusion restriction was associated with survival in patients with GBM. Methods: MRI of th [...]

679 5461

Open Access Review

Craniopharyngiomas: An Appropriate Surgical Treatment based on Topographical and Pathological Concepts

Received: 11 September 2018;  Published: 15 October 2018;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.1804012


Treatment of craniopharyngiomas (CPs) represents a neurosurgical challenge, the major reason being their close relationship with the hypothalamus and the third ventricle (3V) boundaries. Nevertheless, CPs are generally defined as “suprasellar” lesions, an imprecise and frequently faulty term. Despite being heterogeneous lesions, CPs are actually characterized by repeating pathological patterns which depend on their point of origin along the pituitary-hypothalamic axis. Preoperative understanding of the accurate CP- [...]

951 6981

Open Access Review

Contribution of PET Imaging to Clinical Management of Gliomas

Received: 02 July 2018;  Published: 19 September 2018;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.1803011


Gliomas originating from glial cells, comprise about 30 % of all primary central nervous system tumors and 80 % of malignant brain tumors. Gliomas are different with respect to their biological activity and are categorized according to grades, from benign to malignant with high recurrence rates. For diagnosis location and extent of tumor is assessed by CT and MRI, but for grading additional parameters are necessary: contrast enhanced CT and MRI reveal damage of blood brain barrier, perfusion weighted MRI shows regi [...]

583 6032

Open Access Original Research

Haplo-Insufficiency or Knockout of the Serotonin Transporter Does not Affect Heroin Self-Administration but Decreases BDNF in the Frontal Cortex

Received: 01 February 2018;  Published: 07 June 2018;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.1802010


(1) Background: Drug addiction places a heavy burden on those affected by it but only a small percentage of individuals (~20%), regardless of their drug of abuse, go on to develop the compulsive behaviours that define drug addiction. Clinical studies have shown that genetic variations that reduce serotonin transporter (SERT) activity increase the vulnerability to developing a variety of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and drug addiction. (2) Methods: To investigate the influence of reduced SERT fu [...]

645 4767

Open Access Review

Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, Stroke, and Traumatic Brain Injury: Mechanisms of Hyperpolarized, Depolarized, and Flow-Through Ion Channels Utilized as Tri-Coordinate Biomarkers of Electrophysiologic Dysfunction

Received: 12 January 2018;  Published: 31 May 2018;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.1802009


The brain is an integrated network of multiple variables that when compromised creates a disease state. The neuropathology of temporal lobe epilepsy, stroke, and traumatic brain injury demonstrate both similarity and complexity that reflects this integrated variability; temporal lobe epilepsy with its live human tissue resection research delivers reproducible genetic contributors such as channelopathies, and neurotransmitter deoxyribonucleic acid mutation, yet often fails to be consistent across monozygotic twins. [...]

1091 8137

Open Access Editorial

The Translational Umbrella - A Novel Approach to the Study of the Biological Basis of Mental Health

Received: 20 March 2018;  Published: 29 March 2018;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.1801008

867 5767

Open Access Editorial

Mitochondria, Brain, Heart and Body

by Ya Wen
Received: 28 November 2017;  Published: 05 December 2017;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.1704007


More and more studies revealed links amongst neurological disorders, heart diseases and cancers. For example, people with subclinical cardiovascular diseases are at higher risk for Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson’s disease is associated with varied risk of cancer, Autism Spectrum Disorders and cancer have overlapping genes and molecular pathways, heart disease and cancer share common risk factors, etc. It is intriguing how are these conditions that appear to be completely different linked together.

610 4110

Open Access Review

Perspective on Neurobiological and Clinical Early Indicators of Mild Cognitive Decline and Alzheimer’s Disease

Received: 17 April 2017;  Published: 09 July 2017;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.1702006


There is a need for early diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Traditional assessments of cognitive decline have been found to lack sensitivity and accuracy in differentiating varying stages of Demetria and cognitive decline as well as being time consuming in their administration. Key components of cognition namely memory and executive function have been identified as most predicative of AD status. Brief cognitive screening tools such as the MoCA have [...]

782 4782

Open Access Review

Perspectives on the Role of Endocannabinoids in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Received: 11 April 2017;  Published: 27 April 2017;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.1702005


Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are diagnosed on the basis of three behavioral features, namely, (1) deficits in social communication, (2) absence or delay in language and (3) stereotypy. The consensus regarding the neurological pathogenesis of ASDs is aberrant synaptogenesis and synapse function. Further, it is now widely accepted that ASD is neurodevelopmental in nature, placing emphasis on derangements occurring at the level of intra- and intercellular signaling during corticogenesis. At present, there is an ev [...]

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