High Energy Density Rechargeable Aqueous Lithium Batteries with an Aqueous Hydroquinone Sulfonic Acid and Benzoquinone Sulfonic Acid Redox Couple Cathode
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Batteries: Past, Present and Future
Submission Deadline: April 10, 2021 (Open) Submit Now
Ahamed Irshad, PhD
Research Associate, Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA
Research Interests: lithium-ion and lithium-sulfur batteries, aqueous alkaline batteries, solid electrolytes, conducting polymers, fluoride-ion batteries, metal-air batteries, electrocatalysis, photoelectrochemical devices, interfacial electrochemistry, chemical education
About This Topic
The global energy demand has increased substantially in last decade due to rapid increase in population and unprecedented growth in technology. The increased energy demand has to be met by utilizing renewable energy sources. However, seasonal variation in the power generation from renewables necessitates integrating them with energy storage devices such as batteries. Batteries store electrical energy as chemical energy at a time when energy production is high (charging) and convert back to electricity when there is power requirement (discharging). The ability of modern lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) to store tremendous amount of energy, and charge/discharge multiple times make them ideal for daily life applications. The extraordinary achievement in LIB technology is also recognized by 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to John Goodenough, Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino. It is the time for us to revisit major milestones in energy storage, and analyze batteries before and after LIBs.
History of batteries began with the invention of “Voltaic pile” by Italian physicist, Alessandro Volta in 1799 in an attempt to explain animal electricity proposed by Luigi Galvani. This invention triggered scientific interest that led to several aqueous batteries such as Daniel cell, nickel-iron or nickel-cadmium alkaline batteries and lead-acid batteries. However, the cell voltage of aqueous batteries was limited to 2 V due to the decomposition of water. Thus, the research goal was soon shifted to high voltage non-aqueous batteries. Lithium with massive specific capacity of 3861 mAh g-1 thanks to its low atomic weight (6.941) and most negative reduction potential (-3.04 V vs. SHE) was considered as an ultimate battery anode. However, safety issues hindered successful commercialization of lithium metal batteries. Soon the pioneers of LIB technology discovered LiCoO2 cathode and graphite anode to build the first lithium-ion battery prototype in 1985, and Sony commercialized it in 1991. Since then, LIBs dominated battery market especially for portable devices and electric vehicles. However, global lithium reserve is limited and distributed unevenly on earth’s crust. Thus, earth-abundant sodium and potassium are proposed recently as alternatives to lithium. Then again, the energy density of traditional LIBs can hardly go beyond 300 Whkg-1. Therefore, there is an urgent quest to develop high-energy metal-sulfur and metal-air batteries. In the present focus issue on batteries, original research and review articles are welcome on theoretical and experimental studies on all aspects of (i) aqueous alkaline and acid batteries, (ii) metal-ion batteries, (iii). redox flow batteries, and (iv) high energy metal-air and metal-sulfur systems.
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batteries; lithium-ion battery; energy storage; alkaline batteries; lead-acid battery; electric vehicles; metal-sulfur and metal-air batteries; energy density; aqueous and non-aqueous batteries
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