Zero-Emission Geothermal Power Generation: Experimental Study on Carbonate Mineralization through CO2-Andesitic Pyroclastic Rock Interaction at Oku-Aizu Geothermal Plant
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Geothermal Energy Exploration and Production
Submission Deadline: October 31, 2019 (Open) Submit Now
Andres Navarro Flores, PhD
Senior Professor, Department of Fluid Mechanics, Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain
Research Interests: geochemistry, geothermal, salt contaminats
About This Topic
Geothermal systems are found in a range of geological settings and each of the different types has distinct characteristics which may be reflected in the superficial features of these systems and the chemistry of fluids. The geothermal exploration could minimize risks related to resource temperature, depth, productivity and sustainability prior to drilling. The surveying techniques used may include surface studies (active surface features, etc.), geothermometry (fluid and soil sampling) and geophysical surveying (gravity, ER, magnetotelluric, seismic, temperature gradient, etc.).
The estimation of reservoir temperatures is a major goal in geothermal exploration. Geothermometric calculations were used in order to assess the possible temperatures that may allow the exploitation of reservoirs. Chemical geothermometers are based on temperature dependent water-rock equilibrium, and give the last temperature of water-rock equilibrium attained in the aquifer. Nonetheless, the application of some geothermometers to mixed waters or partially equilibrated waters may produce poor results. Furthermore, the evaluation of thermal energy potential may be estimated by using mathematical models, which resolves heat, flow and mass transport equations in order to estimate the efficiency of geothermal applications. At final stage of the geothermal exploration begins the test drilling in order to demonstrate the feasibility of commertial production.
Flooded underground mines also may constitute a potential geothermal resource for low-temperature uses, or even for electricity production, if the reservoir reaches a sufficiently high temperature. The closure of deep abandoned mines involve the cessation of the expensive pumping systems and the progressive mine flooding and groundwater rebound may cause the transport of contaminants and energy. In these cases, mine waters may be a source of renewable energy and their hydrogeochemistry may be useful to determine the origin and nature of fluids. Thus, the use of mine water for geothermal purposes may provide an innovative opportunity to extract low-grade geothermal energy.
The conversion of geothermal energy into electrical energy may require the use of traditional power plants: direct dry-steam, flash steam and binary plants. The study of advances systems (super-critical fluids, etc.) may be of great interest for future geothermal exploitation.
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Exploration; Geothermal surface features; Hot springs; Geochemical surveying; Geothermometry; Multicomponent geothermometry; Geophysical surveying; Numerical modeling; Heat and mass transport modeling; Test drilling; Geothermal power plants; Enhanced geothermal systems; Geothermal mine water
Title: Machine Learning to Aid Exploration and Production of Geothermal Resources
Authors: Fred Aminzadeh 1, Kelly Rose 2
Affiliations: 1. Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA;
2. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, USA
Title: Dynamic Geothermal Exploration Methods Versus Static Methods of High Temperature Systems
Authors: Manfred P Hochstein 1, Eylem Kaya 2
Affiliations: 1. School of Environment, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
2. Engineering Geothermal Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Abstract: Climate changes will put an extra demand on the development of geothermal systems. For the necessary surveys we discuss the geophysical methods which will be used in the future exploration of high temperature geothermal systems. These systems can be divided into high temperature systems (usually greater than 220 °C at economic depth), as they are typical for volcanic active regions and for crustal intrusions, and low temperature systems (less than 120 °C) which are not suitable for electricity generation.
The geophysical methods used for high temperature systems can be divided into dynamic methods which measure anomalies caused by fluid movement underground and static methods which describe thermal alterations in an active or non-active geothermal system. The static methods can reflect paleo-activity. Both methods are used to site exploration drilling. Dynamic methods are measurements of active natural heat loss and certain micro seismic methods which allow for tracing of fluid paths and tectonic activity. For active systems one can also use the self potential method and the resistivity methods. However, paelo-systems, or non-active systems, can also produce similar resistivity and magnetic anomalies. Examples are presented for both class of methods for selected systems obtained over the past five to ten years.
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