Nikolai A. Zarkevich
Received: September 30, 2019; Published: January 06, 2020; doi:10.21926/jept.2001001
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Title: Multidisciplinary and multi-scale assessment of marine renewable energy structure in tidal system
Authors: Jean-Claude Dauvin, Anne-Claire Bennis
Abstract: The French coast of the Atlantic and English Channel is promising to the development of Marine Renewable Energy including wind, wave, and tidal stream due to high velocity of currents in some parts of the area. Scour protection and on the natural seabed around the piles of the wind turbine increased significantly the fish and large crustacean populations as Artificial Reef. Moreover, these artificial structures had been colonized by marine organisms and acted as artificial reefs. Within a multidisciplinary approach, the links between physical and biological processes in areas with very strong currents such as the Alderney Race (up to 12 knots of current), had been assessed using numerical modeling to estimate consequences on the energy production of tidal turbines. Different methods have been used to take into fluid structure interaction: addition of external forces to the equations of fluid motion (e.g. CFD-BEM or vortex method) or full inclusion of fluid-structure interactions like in pure CFD. The effects of the presence of barnacles and mussels modify turbulent activity and are dependent on the species height, density and their position on the blades and hosting structure. In another way, Ecopath ecosystem models composed of 28 compartments, from phytoplankton to seabirds, was built to describe the situation “Before” and “After” the implementation of offshore wind farms in two areas Dieppe-Le Tréport and Courseulles-sur-mer in the eastern part of the English Channel. Ecological Network Analysis (ENA) indices were calculated to compare network functioning and the overall structural properties of the food web. Finally a holistic view of socio-ecosystem was developed through the use of a qualitative mathematical modeling approach playing a vital role in decision making. This method improved long term planning for the marine environment, but was also as a tool for communication with the public in contributing to a better acceptability of the Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) project. All thesemultidisciplinary and multi-scale approaches could be develop to a better assessment and acceptation of marine renewable energy in coastal ecosystems.
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