New Developments in Brain Injury
Submission Deadline: June 20, 2019 (Open) Submit Now
Lynne Ann Barker, PhD Reader in Cognitive Neuroscience
Department of Psychology, Sociology and Politics, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom
E-Mail: [email protected]
Research Interests: Neuropsychology; Cognitive Neuroscience; Brain Trauma; Cognitive assessment; Biomarkers of Neuropathology, Novel Interventions and Therapeutics
Leanne Greene, PhD
1. Researcher, Department of Psychology, Sociology and Politics, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom.
2. Assistant Psychologist, Neurorehabiitation Hub, Rotherham Doncaster & South Humber NHS Trust, Doncaster, UK.
E-Mail: [email protected]
Research Interests: My current PhD research has investigated eye tracking and eye scan paths underpinning social cognition, particularly facial affect recognition, in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and control cohorts. This research builds upon existing evidence concerning social
About This Topic
Estimates of incidence of brain injury across the globe vary considerably, but it is clear that brain injury remains a major cause of death and disability, particularly in youth. Advances in critical care mean that most have normal life expectancy but quality of life is frequently, sometimes devastatingly, compromised. There is an urgent need for new approaches, interventions, therapies, treatments and diagnostic tools that better assess real world capacity and draw on new technologies and advances in science. One particular topic of interest is inconsistency around severity diagnosis (e.g. when to start measuring PTA and GCS, particularly if someone is in a coma or the injury is mild in nature,) and the impact this has on brain injury statistics and rehabilitation. It is a critical priority to develop new ways of standardizing this process. In this special edition we invite submissions that specifically embrace this new spirit of innovation in brain injury assessment, treatment and research. Our aim is to showcase new, inventive and original approaches to longstanding issues in brain injury research and neurorehabilitation.
Manuscripts should be submitted online at http://www.lidsen.com/account-login by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website. Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. Guidelines for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts are available on the Instructions for Authors page. OBM Neurobiology is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by LIDSEN. Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript.
Title: Role of Hyperglycemia in Preterm Brain Injury
Authors: Katherine Satrom, Tate Gisslen, Raghavendra Rao
Affiliations: Division of Neonatology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (USA)
Title: Role of Erythropoietin in Brain Injury
Authors: Stephana Carelli , Michele Samaja
Affiliation: Department of Health Science, University of Milan, Italy
Abstract: Erythropoietin (EPO), widely known as an erythropoietic hormone, is recognized as a protective messenger in several biological systems, including the cerebrovascular. A downstream protein whose synthesis is triggered by hypoxia-related stresses, EPO exerts its anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects through its receptor and the activation of the STAT3 pathways, as demonstrated especially in traumatic spinal cord injury. However, it appears that EPO may be related to non-hypoxia-related pathways, such as in Parkinson’s disease, and that hyperoxia, a condition opposite to hypoxia, may be as deleterious as hypoxia in generating brain injury. We will review these mechanisms, evaluating also the potential use of EPO mimics as potential therapeutic targets.
Title: Concussion Management in Soccer
Authors: Aiace Rusciano
Affiliation: NeuroLAb, Medical Staff Ac ChievoVerona (Italian Soccer High Division)
Abstract: Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with participation exceeding 265 million people. As 1.6 to 3.8 million TBI result from sports and recreation each year in the United States alone. The most common type of sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is cerebral concussion. Sport concussion (mild-TBI) is a pathophysiological event that affects the brain, caused by the direct or indirect action of biomechanical forces. The general epidemiology of soccer-related concussions is unknown. Until recently, loss of consciousness (LOC) has been used as the primary identifier of a concussion, although it is now known that only 10% of all cases involve LOC. These clinical symptoms are often the result of functional disturbances and not structural injury. Thus, traditional imaging modalities (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans) often result in negative findings when diagnosing a soccer player with concussion. Recent approach to soccer concussion management with evolving guidelines supporting the implementation of neurocognitive exams and balance assessments to compliment the clinical examination.
Title: The Role of Periostin in Brain Injury Caused by Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Authors: Hideki Kanamaru, Hidenori Suzuki
Affiliation: Department of Neurosurgery, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Japan
Title: Extra Corporeal Life Support in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients
Authors: Valentina Della Torre 1, Berta Monleon 2, Rafael Badenes 2, Federico Bilotta 3
1. Anaesthetics and Intensive Care Department, West Suffolk NHS Foundation Trust, Bury St Edmunds, UK
2. Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgical Trauma Intensive Care, Hospital Clinic Universitari de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
3. Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy
Title: Visuospatial executive functions are worsened by concussion in young rugby players but may be remediated by brain training
Authors: Aleksandra Oledzka, Lynne Ann Barker
Affiliation: Centre for Behavioural Science and Applied Psychology, Department of Psychology, Sociology & Politics, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Sheffield Hallam University, Heart of the Campus, Collegiate Crescent, Sheffield S10 2BQ
(1) Background: Executive functions (EF’s) are higher-order cognitive processes important for activities of everyday living and autonomous goal-directed behaviour (Doherty, Barker, Denniss et al., 2015). Recently, EF research has become more diverse across a broader range of populations with varied methodologies (Barker & Morton, 2018). EF’s are associated with frontal brain networks and are susceptible to injury.
(2) Methods: In the present study we investigated whether there was any relationship between concussion frequency and severity and executive function abilities in young rugby players. We also investigated whether a commercial brain training app enhanced cognitive functions and showed transfer effects to standardized EF performance scores.
(3) Results: Results showed that selective visuospatial EF’s were adversely affected by concussion. However, these same functions were also responsive to brain training.
(4) Conclusions: These preliminary findings hold promise for larger scale studies investigating cognitive effects of concussion and remediation using brain training.