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Open Access Review

Infectious Considerations for Patients on Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

Anita Modi, Sherif Beniameen Mossad
Received: July 07, 2019; Published: September 06, 2019; doi:10.21926/obm.transplant.1903085

Abstract: Chronic inflammatory states lead to T cell exhaustion, characterized by reduced T cell proliferation and activity. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPI) reactivate T cells to restore the immune system’s natural defenses against foreign antigens. The widespread use of these agents in the treatment of m [...]

Open Access Review

Benefits of Combined Liver Transplant: Protection or Tolerance?

Salim Hamdani, Daniel Azoulay
Received: April 18, 2019; Published: September 04, 2019; doi:10.21926/obm.transplant.1903084

Abstract: The privileged liver by its immunological status is described as a tolerogenic organ. However, these alone do not explain the installation of a tolerance after single or combined liver transplantation (kidney, heart, pancreas, intestine). Other factors appear to be involved in the identification of [...]

Open Access Research Article

Characterization of Early Indicators of Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy Lesions in a Rat Model Using Non-Invasive Cellular MR

Qing Ye, Yijen L. Wu, Lesley M. Foley, Parker H. Mills, Fang-Cheng Yeh, Haosen Zhang, Danielle F. Eytan, Li Liu, T. Kevin Hitchens, Chien Ho
Received: January 07, 2019; Published: August 29, 2019; doi:10.21926/obm.transplant.1903083

Abstract: Background: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains a major obstacle to long-term heart allograft survival. A number of studies show that immune mechanisms involved in CAV. Using non-invasive cellular MRI (CMRI) to explore indicators of CAV lesions and characterize its development could provi [...]

Open Access Short Report

Estradiol 17-β Induces Pancreatic Beta-Cell Proliferation through Distinct Estrogen Receptors in a Glucose Dependent Manner

Sigal Shaklai, Meital Grafi-Cohen, Orli Sharon, Gaby Shefer, Dalia Somjen, Naftali Stern
Received: April 17, 2019; Published: August 27, 2019; doi:10.21926/obm.transplant.1903082

Abstract: Background: Estradiol 17-beta (E2) enhances the function and survival of pancreatic beta-cells but its clinical use has been questioned due to concerns regarding oncogenic potential and feminizing effects in males. The G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), expressed in pancreatic islets, exhib [...]

Open Access Review

Viral Infections in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients: Literature Review

Shruthi Kodad, Waleed Sabry, Assem Elsayed, Hadi Goubran, Mohamed Elemary
Received: June 25, 2019; Published: August 26, 2019; doi:10.21926/obm.transplant.1903081

Abstract: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at an increased risk of bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infections. Past exposures to infections, the degree of immunosuppression, prolonged neutropenia and presence of graft versus host disease (GVHD) are some of the factors which make [...]

Open Access Review

Induction of Tolerance towards Solid Organ Allografts Using Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Large Animal Models

Scott S. Graves, David W. Mathes, Rainer Storb
Received: November 23, 2018; Published: August 23, 2019; doi:10.21926/obm.transplant.1903080

Abstract: Background: The application of hematopoietic cell transplantation for induction of immune tolerance has been limited by toxicities associated with conditioning regimens and to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Decades of animal studies have culminated into sufficient control of these two problems, m [...]

Open Access Original Research

Alemtuzumab Treatment Leads to Delayed Recovery of T Follicular Regulatory Cells, and May Therefore Predispose Patients to de novo Donor-Specific Antibody Formation

Elizabeth F. Wallin, Michelle A. Linterman, Kathryn J. Wood
Received: June 02, 2019; Published: August 19, 2019; doi:10.21926/obm.transplant.1903079

Abstract: Background - T follicular helper (Tfh) and regulatory (Tfr) cells are key players in the formation of long-lived antibody responses. Their circulating counterparts, cTfh and cTfr, are often used as biomarkers because longitudinal sampling of secondary lymphoid tissues is unfeasible in clinical studi [...]

Open Access Research Article

Immunoprotective Encapsulation of Micro-Organs

Assaf Assis, Lena Sapozhnikov, Sandra Camargo, Eduardo Mitrani
Received: May 07, 2019; Published: August 14, 2019; doi:10.21926/obm.transplant.1903078

Abstract: Background: Cell encapsulation technology is most likely the ultimate solution for autologous cell therapy based clinical approaches. A key issue when developing a functional encapsulated construct, is to consider not only the nature of the capsule but also how the cells should be incorporated into [...]

Open Access Original Research

Mortality Risk Factors in Patients who are in Heart Transplantation Waiting List

Petr A. Fedotov, Maria A. Simonenko, Yulia V. Sazonova, Mariya A. Bortsova, Artem N. Kostomarov, Mariya Yu. Sitnikova
Received: February 01, 2019; Published: August 05, 2019; doi:10.21926/obm.transplant.1903077

Abstract: Purpose: to estimate the survival of patients in a heart transplantation waiting list (HTxWL) at V.A.Almazov NMRC from 2010 to 2017 and to define risk factors for death among these patients. Materials and methods: A single-centre retrospective study of 151 patients with advanced chronic heart failur [...]

Open Access Research Article

Never Say Never: Unexpected Pulmonary Pathogens Found on Autopsy in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Recipients

Ashrit Multani, Libby S. Allard, Joanna K. Nelson
Received: June 03, 2019; Published: July 29, 2019; doi:10.21926/obm.transplant.1903076

Abstract: Hematopoietic cell transplantation is frequently complicated by infectious disease-related complications, especially pneumonia. Candida and enterococci are often overlooked as pulmonary pathogens with some clinicians firmly believing that these organisms never cause pneumonia. Here, we present a ser [...]

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