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Open Access Original Research

The Impact of Psychological Stress on Personal Income, Physical Health and Entrepreneurial Intentions among Entrepreneurs

Nadia A. Abdelmegeed Abdelwahed *

  1. Department of Business Management, College of Business Administration, King Faisal University, Al Hofuf, AIAhsa, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence: Nadia A. Abdelmegeed Abdelwahed

Academic Editor: Félix Fernando Monteiro Neto

Received: September 19, 2023 | Accepted: December 28, 2023 | Published: January 04, 2024

OBM Neurobiology 2024, Volume 8, Issue 1, doi:10.21926/obm.neurobiol.2401205

Recommended citation: Abdelwahed NAA. The Impact of Psychological Stress on Personal Income, Physical Health and Entrepreneurial Intentions among Entrepreneurs. OBM Neurobiology 2024; 8(1): 205; doi:10.21926/obm.neurobiol.2401205.

© 2024 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is correctly cited.


Entrepreneurial intention plays a pivotal role within entrepreneurship ecosystems, acting as a catalyst for economic growth and innovation by inspiring individuals to embrace entrepreneurship as a viable career pursuit. The present research delves into the intricate dynamics between stress, entrepreneurial intention, personal income, and physical health within Egypt's entrepreneurial landscape. Grounded in a quantitative analysis of 286 valid samples and utilizing SmartPLS 4, this study unveils compelling insights. It reveals a stark negative correlation between stress and entrepreneurial intention, personal income, and physical health while highlighting the affirmative association between individual income, physical health, and entrepreneurial intention among Egyptian entrepreneurs. These findings underscore the imperative of integrating stress management and mental health support mechanisms into entrepreneurship support programs, offering entrepreneurs invaluable resources to fortify their resolve and adaptability in navigating the entrepreneurial journey.


Stress; physical health; personal income; entrepreneurial intention; entrepreneurs; psychological problems

1. Introduction

The realm of entrepreneurship has long been recognized as a dynamic and vital force in driving economic growth and innovation on both global and national scales [1,2]. With its rich history and burgeoning economy, Egypt has witnessed a remarkable surge in entrepreneurial activities in recent years. The entrepreneurial spirit has found fertile ground in the minds of countless Egyptians, who are seizing opportunities, innovating, and charting new economic pathways. However, this entrepreneurial journey has its challenges, and one particularly pervasive and multifaceted obstacle that entrepreneurs face is psychological stress [3,4]. Psychological stress, arising from the intricate interplay of individual, social, and environmental factors, can have profound implications for entrepreneurial endeavors [5]. It reverberates through multiple dimensions of an entrepreneur's life, extending its reach to personal income, physical health, and the core of entrepreneurial intentions [6,7]. Understanding how these elements intersect and influence one another within Egyptian entrepreneurship's unique context is paramount. It sheds light on the intricate dynamics of entrepreneurship and offers invaluable insights for policymakers, support organizations, and aspiring entrepreneurs seeking to navigate and thrive in this vibrant ecosystem.

This research explores the complex relationship between psychological stress, personal income, physical health, and entrepreneurial intentions among Egyptian entrepreneurs. By unraveling the web of connections between these variables, the researcher aims to provide a nuanced perspective on the challenges and opportunities faced by individuals pursuing entrepreneurial aspirations in Egypt. Moreover, this investigation has broader implications, as it contributes to the burgeoning field of entrepreneurship research and informs strategies for fostering a conducive environment for entrepreneurial growth and success in Egypt and beyond.

In the following sections, the researcher developed the sections such as existing literature, hypotheses, methodology, and findings and concluded with insights and recommendations that can drive positive change in the entrepreneurial landscape of Egypt. Through this exploration, the researcher embarks on a journey to comprehend better the impact of psychological stress on personal income, physical health, and entrepreneurial intentions, ultimately aiming to enhance our understanding of the multifaceted world of entrepreneurship in Egypt.

2. Literature Review and Hypotheses Development

The relevant literature provides profound insights into the intricate nexus among income, stress, and well-being across diverse scenarios. [8] shed light on the psychological toll of poverty, revealing how economic adversity amplifies stress levels and begets adverse behaviors, including anxiety and aggression. This exploration is extended by [9] by spotlighting the vulnerability of social workers to secondary traumatic stress, unearthing the substantial influence of income levels and caseload size on their mental equilibrium. According to [10], the labyrinthine interplay of psychosocial stressors, social support networks, income disparities, and depressive symptoms, particularly among African-American women, accentuates robust social connections' pivotal role in mitigating stress-related effects. Likewise, the confluence of gender dynamics and household income unveils income disparities and precarious employment scenarios that compound stress and precipitate work-family conflicts, with women disproportionately affected [11]. In the perception of [12], stress within low-income families elucidates financial strains strain familial bonds. The financial stress among Black college students highlights how subjective income perceptions can significantly shape experiences of financial stress [13]. [3] contribute to this narrative by scrutinizing the intricate balance between stress, health, and wealth for entrepreneurs, underscoring the imperative to fathom the nuanced dynamics within this realm.

The studies regarding the effect of stress on physical health suggest that entrepreneurs face challenges of health and wealth trade-offs stemming from the chronic stress inherent in entrepreneurial pursuits [3,14,15]. [16] delve deep into the neurophysiological pathways that connect psychological stress to physical health, elucidating the mechanisms that underlie stress-related health issues. Scholars like [17] and [18] shed light on how stress disrupts physical activity and exercise patterns, potentially jeopardizing overall physical health. They claim the crucial role of neighborhoods in mediating or moderating the intricate connection between stress and physical health, underscoring the importance of environmental factors in shaping health outcomes. In the views of [19], stress is better for health, influencing overall physical well-being. The socioeconomic status and socioecological stress on the quality of life, especially among breast cancer survivors, unravel the intricate interplay of social determinants with health outcomes [14]. [15] suggest that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) positively impacts physical health. Stress reduction techniques, such as breath work, positively affect mental health [15].

There is a positive connection between personal income and entrepreneurial intention. [6] posits that personal income acts as a catalyst, fostering entrepreneurial intention, particularly among individuals with higher income levels who exhibit a greater propensity to explore entrepreneurial opportunities. This notion gains further support from the work of [20], who elucidate the pivotal role of income, primarily when financial success is a motivating factor, in influencing one's inclination towards entrepreneurship. [1] reinforces this connection, revealing a positive correlation between higher personal income and stronger entrepreneurial intentions, particularly among agricultural students. The demographic indicators, such as cognitive and institutional factors, including personal income, positively contribute to entrepreneurial intention [7,21,22]. Research takes a pioneering approach by investigating the nexus between perceived health and entrepreneurial intention among individuals with disabilities, recognizing health as a form of human capital. However, further elaboration on the practical implications of their findings would strengthen the paper's contribution. According to [23], work delves into the impact of psychological capital on the entrepreneurial intentions of university students, offering a structured examination of optimism, resilience, self-efficacy, and hope.

Consequently, the extant literature has diligently explored various determinants of entrepreneurial intention, including stress, anxiety, social capital, human capital, physical health, personal income, attitudes, psychological capital, resilience, self-efficacy, and hope [3,6,7,9,15,21,22], it still exhibits several noteworthy gaps. First, a comprehensive examination of the interplay among stress, physical health, and personal income concerning entrepreneurial intention needs to be more extensive in the literature. Second, there needs to be more studies that investigate the dynamic relationship between personal income, physical health, and entrepreneurial intention in the context of stress. Lastly, while the literature provides valuable insights, there needs to be more research contextualized to Egyptian entrepreneurs, necessitating a more nuanced understanding of these integrated relationships within this specific entrepreneurial landscape. Building upon the existing literature and these identified gaps, the researcher proposes a novel model (Figure 1) to investigate the intricate dynamics of Egyptian entrepreneurs.

Click to view original image

Figure 1 Model of the study. Source: Developed by the researcher.

2.1 Stress, Entrepreneurial Intention, Personal Income, and Physical Health

Stress plays a negative role in hindering entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial activities. The literature reveals a consistent pattern of crucial findings that establish a negative relationship between stress and entrepreneurship. [5] emphasize that stressors specific to entrepreneurship can adversely affect entrepreneurs' well-being and overall stress levels. This stress can unintentionally hinder entrepreneurial endeavors and innovation [24]. In the perception of [25], the significance of psychological resilience and stress management in mitigating the negative consequences of stress on entrepreneurial outcomes. [3] provide empirical evidence of stress-related health and wealth trade-offs for entrepreneurs, indicating the costs associated with high-stress levels: the perceived entrepreneurial stress and its link to well-being among entrepreneurs [4]. Similarly, [26] shows that stress levels during crises can significantly impact entrepreneurs' well-being, further substantiating the negative relationship between stress and entrepreneurship.

Stress can multifacetedly impact income levels by affecting productivity, decision-making, health, and career prospects. Managing and mitigating stress is essential to preserve physical and financial well-being [9]. Lower income levels often correspond with heightened stress levels, especially among low-income families, as demonstrated by [8]. Poverty and involuntary engagement stress responses can lead to increased anxiety and aggression, reflecting the adverse impact of income disparities on stress responses. Furthermore, the psychosocial effects of income, as explored by [10], indicate that social support networks and psychosocial stressors mediate the relationship between income and depressive symptoms, emphasizing the importance of context and support structures. Household income can intersect with factors like gender and work-family conflict, potentially amplifying stress, as noted by [11]. Besides, financial stress, a pertinent issue among college students, can influence perceptions of relative income, affecting one's psychological well-being [13]. According to [3], entrepreneurs face several challenges wherein the potential for financial gain may be offset by the stress inherent in entrepreneurial endeavors.

It's important to note that the effects of stress on physical health can vary from person to person and depend on factors such as genetics, coping mechanisms, and the duration and intensity of stress [15]. [3] delve into the entrepreneurial landscape, revealing the inherent health and wealth trade-offs faced by entrepreneurs who often grapple with chronic stress, potentially endangering their physical health due to prolonged exposure to the stressors inherent in their business ventures. In the perception of [16], the complex brain-body pathways underpin the link between psychological stress and physical health. Stress initiates physiological responses, which, when chronic, can lead to various health issues, including cardiovascular problems. Similarly, [18] shed light on the effect of stress on physical health by disrupting physical activity patterns, often resulting in a sedentary lifestyle that exacerbates health problems. The role of neighborhoods is moderating between stress and physical health [17]. [19] suggest the effect of cardiovascular reactivity and stress on cardiovascular health, consequently influencing overall physical well-being. According to [14], socio-ecological stress impacts the quality of life among breast cancer survivors. The connection between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and physical health is positive and significant [15]. [15] explore the effects of breath work on stress and mental health, indirectly emphasizing stress reduction techniques' potential physical health benefits. In COVID-19, COVID-19-related stress negatively affects the mental health [27].

Consequently, the literature demonstrates that stress can significantly impede entrepreneurial intention, as it often reduces entrepreneurs' motivation and resilience [5,25]. This adverse impact on entrepreneurial intention could hinder the growth and development of businesses, ultimately affecting personal income. Secondly, the detrimental effects of stress on physical health are well-documented, encompassing issues such as cardiovascular problems, compromised immune responses, and even musculoskeletal pain [15,18]. Poor physical health can further exacerbate stress and limit one's ability to engage in entrepreneurial activities or maintain a stable source of income. On the other hand, evidence suggests a positive relationship between stress levels and personal income. [3] highlights that some entrepreneurs may willingly accept high stress levels as a trade-off for potentially higher financial rewards. However, this positive association may not hold for all individuals, and the effects of stress on income may vary depending on individual coping mechanisms and contextual factors. Importantly, these relationships have not been examined holistically within the unique context of Egyptian entrepreneurs. Egypt's entrepreneurial landscape may present distinct stressors and coping mechanisms that can influence the interplay between stress, entrepreneurial intention, physical health, and personal income. Hence, the researcher expects:

H1. Stress is negatively associated with the entrepreneurial intention of Egyptian entrepreneurs to initiate their new ventures.

H2. Stress is positively associated with the personal income of Egyptian entrepreneurs to initiate their new ventures.

H3. Stress is negatively associated with the physical health of Egyptian entrepreneurs to initiate their new ventures.

2.2 Personal Income and Entrepreneurial Intention

Personal income can be a facilitating factor, and entrepreneurial intention is influenced by individual traits, experiences, opportunities, and motivations [7]. The relationship between personal income and entrepreneurial intention, as revealed in the literature, is complex and multifaceted. On one hand, some studies suggest that personal income can act as a significant facilitator of entrepreneurial intention. Individuals with higher income levels may have the financial stability and resources to explore entrepreneurial opportunities, enhancing their motivation to become entrepreneurs [6,28]. However, it's important to note that income is just one piece of the puzzle. [20] emphasize that broader factors, including intrinsic motivations and alignment with personal values, influence entrepreneurial intention. These factors can interact with income, suggesting that the relationship between income and entrepreneurial intention is nuanced. Moreover, demographic factors such as age, gender, and educational background can further moderate this relationship, as [21] demonstrated. Likewise, psychological traits like overconfidence, explored by [29], can intersect with income levels to influence an individual's intention to become an entrepreneur. Furthermore, cultural and socioeconomic factors play a pivotal role, as seen in the study by [7], indicating that income's impact on entrepreneurial intention may vary across different cultural and socioeconomic contexts. Lastly, the interaction between psychological traits and socioeconomic factors, as investigated by [30], further underscores the intricate dynamics in shaping entrepreneurial aspirations. Thus, the influence of personal income on entrepreneurial intention is best understood in these multifaceted interactions, where income is just one element within a broader web of determinants.

Consequently, the existing literature substantiates a positive association between personal income and entrepreneurial intention, indicating that higher individual income levels often correlate with a greater inclination toward entrepreneurship. However, it is essential to recognize that these relationships may not hold when considered alongside the critical factors of stress and physical health, particularly in the unique context of Egyptian entrepreneurs. Therefore, while personal income can be a pivotal factor in fostering entrepreneurial intention, it is crucial to consider the mitigating effects of stress and the potential limitations posed by physical health. To confirm these, the researcher proposed:

H4. Personal income is positively associated with the entrepreneurial intention of Egyptian entrepreneurs to initiate their new ventures.

2.3 Physical Health and Entrepreneurial Intention

The relationship between physical health and entrepreneurial intention is positive and significant. [22] shed light on how perceived health, especially among individuals with disabilities, can be a pivotal determinant of entrepreneurial intention. The perception of one's physical well-being shapes the motivation to engage in entrepreneurial activities. Similarly, [31] explores students' entrepreneurial intentions in physical and health education, indicating a connection between one's chosen field of study, which directly involves physical health, and one's inclination toward entrepreneurship. Beyond these direct associations, other studies indirectly touch upon the relationship. For instance, [23] delves into psychological capital, encompassing aspects of mental well-being, which can overlap with physical health. Furthermore, [32] consider collectivist orientation, which may influence how individuals prioritize their health, potentially impacting their entrepreneurial intentions. The relevant studies collectively suggest that an individual's physical health and perceived state can shape their intentions to embark on entrepreneurial journeys, with various factors like perception, education, and cultural orientation intricately influencing this dynamic. However, given the unique context of Egyptian entrepreneurs, further research is warranted to gain a more comprehensive understanding of how these elements interact within this specific entrepreneurial ecosystem. Hence:

H5. Physical health is positively associated with the entrepreneurial intention of Egyptian entrepreneurs to initiate their new ventures.

3. Methods

3.1 Approach and Respondents

The researcher applied a quantitative and cross-sectional approach to provide a snapshot of a population's characteristics, attitudes, behaviors, or other relevant variables at a specific time [33]. Previously, psychology researchers mainly applied the technique to investigate stress, anxiety, fear, etc. [3,5,11,13]. The researcher targeted Egyptian entrepreneurs as they face multifaceted challenges in their business endeavors [34]. The interplay between psychological problems, stress, and entrepreneurial intentions among Egyptian entrepreneurs is a complex dynamic with far-reaching implications. Psychological issues and chronic stress can be significant barriers to entrepreneurial pursuits, often dampening risk-taking propensities, sapping motivation, and impairing decision-making abilities essential for business success [35]. Furthermore, these challenges can hinder interpersonal relationships crucial for securing resources and damage physical health, impacting overall well-being. These psychological burdens may also curtail the capacity for imaginative thinking and problem-solving in a field that thrives on creativity and innovation [36]. Recognizing these complexities and investing in mental health support, stress management resources, and research can play a vital role in bolstering individuals' well-being and entrepreneurial endeavors in Egypt's business landscape.

3.2 Survey Tools, Reliability, and Validity

The utilization of a survey questionnaire stands as a pivotal methodological choice, bearing profound significance in the realm of data collection. Survey questionnaires efficiently facilitate the acquisition of structured data, offering invaluable insights that span the domains of research, business, and decision-making [37]. However, before embarking on large-scale data collection, the researcher diligently undertook a pilot study involving 18 participants, a crucial step to ensure our questionnaire's reliability and validity. To ascertain reliability, the researcher assessed Cronbach's alpha, a well-established measure for confirming internal consistency among the questionnaire items. The outcome of this analysis revealed a commendable overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.839, with each factor scoring above the threshold of 0.70, indicating a level of internal consistency deemed acceptable [38]. Moreover, the researcher enlisted the expertise of two individuals, one specializing in psychology and the other well-versed in the latest trends of quantitative research, to review the questionnaire's physical presentation. Their insights led to minor refinements in the questionnaire's format, subsequently paving the way for the launch of our large-scale data collection efforts.

3.3 Data Collection Procedures

The researcher adopted a comprehensive approach to data collection, employing both online and offline modes. This multifaceted strategy was chosen to enhance the inclusivity of the survey, ensuring that a diverse range of Egyptian entrepreneurs could participate and provide their perspectives. Leveraging the convenience sampling strategy, the researcher sought to engage entrepreneurs from various sectors and geographic locations across Egypt. This method allows respondents to contribute to the study or not. The researcher collected the data through both online and offline modes. Offline surveys are valuable sources where there is limited internet access. These surveys also capture a more representative sample of the Egyptian entrepreneurial landscape. These approaches also work as a balanced approach, which enhances survey credibility and the robustness of the data with a comprehensive understanding of the challenges and aspirations of Egyptian entrepreneurs.

Before soliciting responses from participants, meticulous attention was given to upholding stringent ethical standards and safeguarding the respondents' well-being. The researcher diligently adhered to established ethical guidelines, ensuring that participants were treated with the utmost respect and confidentiality throughout the survey. Before engaging in the survey, participants were provided with a comprehensive informed consent document that elucidated the purpose of the study, the voluntary nature of participation, and the protection of their data. It was emphasized that their responses would be anonymized and aggregated, safeguarding their privacy. Consequently, the researcher gathered 286 valid samples and utilized them for the final analysis.

3.4 Measurements

The questionnaire details in the appendix below show that the researcher measured all the factors based on the previous studies. The researcher assessed six items from well-known scholars to measure stress [39,40,41,42]. The researcher applied six items to measure physical health by adopting a form [43,44]. The personal income factor was calculated on two items from [3]. Finally, the researcher applied six items from [45] to assess entrepreneurial intention. All the items employ a five-point Likert scale ranging from strongly agree to disagree.

4. Analysis

4.1 Socio-Demographic Characteristics

Concerning the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, most respondents (n = 196 or 68.53%) were males compared to females (n = 90 or 31.47%). Concerning the respondents' age, most respondents (n = 122 or 42.66%) were 20-30. 37.06% (n = 106) were 31-40 years; 18.53% (n = 53) were 41 years and above. Finally, only 1.75% (n = 5) of respondents were below twenty years of age. The final socio-demographic suggests that the majority (n = 180 or 62.94%) were married, and 26.57% (n = 76) were single. Finally, the researcher found that only 10.49% (n = 30) of those who took part in the survey were divorced or widowed.

4.2 Measurement Model

The researcher used SmartPLS 4 due to a statistical technique used for modeling relationships between latent (unobservable) variables and their manifest (observable) indicators [46]. The researcher applied a measurement model, which is a fundamental component of the analysis. Initially, the researcher ensured factor loading to strengthen the relationship between a latent variable and its manifest indicators. The loading scores between 0.741 (EI3) and 0.907 (PI1) are noted, which are accepted (>0.707) [38]. Besides, the researcher ensured an average variance extracted (AVE), which provides insight into the convergent validity of latent variables and is a valuable tool for evaluating the quality of the measurement model and ensuring that the indicators effectively measure the underlying constructs [38]. The values of AVE are found between 0.620 (EI) to 0.816 (PI) and accepted (>0.50) [38]. Besides, composite reliability (CR) is applied to evaluate the measure to ensure that the indicators effectively and consistently measure the underlying constructs. The values of CR are found to be within acceptable ranges (>0.70) [38]. Furthermore, the researcher ensures reliability as it refers to the consistency (alpha) and stability of measurement, while validity refers to the accuracy and appropriateness of measurement. The results of alpha remained between 0.775 (PI) and 0.891 (STS), which are adequate (>0.70) [38]. Finally, the researcher ensured the Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) to observe the presence and severity of multicollinearity [47]. High VIF values indicate a high degree of multicollinearity, making it challenging to interpret the relationships between independent and dependent variables in a regression analysis. As a result, the researcher noticed the values of VIF less than 0.5, which ensures no presence of assumption of multicollinearity [48] (Table 1 and Figure 2).

Table 1 Measurement model [sample = 286].

Click to view original image

Figure 2 Measurement model. Source: Author’s estimation.

Moreover, the researcher measures the Heterotrait-Monotrait (HTMT), a ratio of correlations valuable for assessing discriminant validity in SEM. It helps researchers determine whether their latent constructs are distinct by considering the correlations and average variances extracted by the constructs [49]. As a result, values are within the acceptable ranges (Table 2).

Table 2 HTMT ratio [sample = 286].

4.3 Structural Model

The researcher applied path analysis to test the proposed hypotheses. Concerning the effect of stress on entrepreneurial intention, the researcher found it negative (H1 = β = -0.04; p > 0.01), which accepted the H1. The analysis confirmed a negative effect of stress on personal income, which rejected the H2 (H1 = β = -0.013; p > 0.01). Moreover, as per expectation, the researcher found a negative effect of stress on physical health (H3 = β = -0.096; p > 0.01), which accepted the H3. Personal income and physical health impact positive and significant on entrepreneurial intention (H4 = β = 0.539; p < 0.01; H5 = β = 0.378; p < 0.01). As a result, H4 and H5 are accepted (Table 3 and Figure 3).

Table 3 SEM estimations [direct paths].

Click to view original image

Figure 3 Path analysis. Source: Estimated by the researcher.

5. Discussion

The study aimed to investigate the impact of psychological stress on personal income, physical health, and entrepreneurial intentions among Egyptian entrepreneurs. The research study adopts a quantitative approach, employing a survey strategy to investigate various hypotheses. In the context of Hypothesis 1 (H1), the findings indicate a discernible negative impact of stress on entrepreneurial intention, corroborated by the extensive body of literature within the field. This alignment with prior research is supported by studies conducted by esteemed scholars such as [3,4,5,24,25,26]. The manifestation of these adverse effects is multifaceted, encompassing physiological and psychological dimensions. Entrepreneurs in the study reported experiencing stress-related symptoms, including heightened systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels, leading to medical professionals' clinical diagnosis of hypertension. In addition to the physiological markers, participants felt under continuous strain, stress, or pressure over the preceding month. Feelings of anxiety, worry, and emotional distress further characterized this emotional state. The study's comprehensive assessment further delved into the oscillation between states of relaxation and tension experienced by participants throughout the same timeframe. These findings underscore the intricate relationship between stress and entrepreneurial intention, shedding light on the multifaceted nature of this phenomenon in the entrepreneurial context.

Furthermore, the study revealed a compelling negative association between stress, personal income, and physical health, aligning closely with prior research. This intricate relationship is substantiated by various scholarly contributions, including the seminal works of [15,16,18,19,27]. These findings underscore the profound impact of stress on individuals' financial well-being and physical vitality. The negative effect on personal income can be attributed to stress-induced reductions in productivity, diminished job performance, and an increased likelihood of absenteeism, all of which can hinder career advancement and income growth. This resonates with the established body of research highlighting the detrimental consequences of chronic stress on professional success and financial stability. Similarly, a wealth of scientific literature substantiates the study's revelation of a damaging effect on physical health. Chronic stress has been linked to various adverse health outcomes, including an elevated risk of cardiovascular diseases, compromised immune function, and worsening pre-existing health conditions. The studies referenced emphasize the intricate interplay between stress and physical health, shedding light on the pervasive nature of these detrimental effects. These findings collectively emphasize the far-reaching consequences of stress, extending beyond its impact on entrepreneurial intentions to encompass personal income and physical well-being. The comprehensive examination of these effects enriches our understanding of stress's multifaceted role in individuals' lives, highlighting the need for proactive strategies to mitigate its adverse consequences in various domains.

Besides, the path analysis of the study elucidates a significant and noteworthy effect of personal income and physical health on the entrepreneurial intentions of Egyptian entrepreneurs. These compelling findings resonate strongly with prior research in the field, providing valuable insights into the unique context of Egyptian entrepreneurship. Aligning with established literature, including seminal works by [6,7,20,23,28,29,30,32], these results underscore the pivotal role of personal income and physical well-being in shaping the entrepreneurial landscape in Egypt. The positive influence of personal income on entrepreneurial intention among Egyptian entrepreneurs can be attributed to several factors. Firstly, a stable and satisfactory personal income is a financial safety net, reducing the perceived financial risks associated with entrepreneurship. This, in turn, encourages individuals to pursue entrepreneurial ventures with greater confidence. Secondly, a higher personal income gives entrepreneurs access to essential resources, including capital for business investment, which can significantly bolster their ability to initiate and sustain entrepreneurial activities. These factors, corroborated by existing research, highlight the substantial impact of personal income on entrepreneurial intention among Egyptian entrepreneurs.

Similarly, the positive correlation between physical health and entrepreneurial intention in the Egyptian context is grounded in practical realities. Good physical health enhances an individual's overall quality of life and contributes to increased energy levels, heightened resilience, and improved cognitive function. Good health becomes an invaluable asset for Egyptian entrepreneurs, who often contend with the challenges of a dynamic and competitive business environment. It equips them with the vitality and stamina required to navigate the demands of entrepreneurship, manage stress effectively, and maintain a sustained commitment to their ventures. The alignment of the present findings with previous research serves to underline the significance of these factors in the specific context of Egyptian entrepreneurship, emphasizing their role in nurturing and sustaining entrepreneurial intentions among this population.

The implications of these results extend beyond the academic realm, offering valuable insights to policymakers, educators, and support organizations. Moreover, fostering initiatives that facilitate economic empowerment, access to resources, and improved health can be pivotal in nurturing and sustaining entrepreneurial aspirations among Egyptians. By addressing these complex dynamics comprehensively, one can collectively contribute to the growth and prosperity of Egypt's entrepreneurial ecosystem.

6. Conclusion

In conclusion, the comprehensive findings of this study underscore the multifaceted interplay between stress, personal income, physical health, and entrepreneurial intention among Egyptian entrepreneurs. The analysis reveals a complex web of relationships within this context. Firstly, the present study confirms the presence of a notable adverse effect of stress on entrepreneurial intention, personal income, and physical health. This aligns with previous research and accentuates the challenges of Egyptian entrepreneurs, who must contend with the detrimental consequences of stress on multiple fronts. Stress not only inhibits entrepreneurial aspirations but also harms financial stability and physical well-being, rendering it a critical focal point for interventions aimed at supporting and nurturing entrepreneurial endeavors in Egypt. Conversely, the investigation highlights the pivotal roles of personal income and physical health as robust predictors of entrepreneurial intention among Egyptian entrepreneurs. These two factors emerge as influential drivers with a direct positive impact on entrepreneurial aspirations. Personal income provides a financial foundation that mitigates perceived risks and fosters confidence. At the same time, good physical health equips entrepreneurs with the vigor and resilience to navigate the dynamic entrepreneurial landscape effectively. These findings shed light on the dual importance of economic empowerment and well-being in catalyzing entrepreneurial intent within the specific context of Egypt.


The researcher sincerely thankful to the Deanship of Scientific Research, Vice Presidency for Graduate Studies and Scientific Research, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia for providing the funds. The researcher also appreciates the respondents who gave their precious time for providing their valuable responses.

Author Contributions

Abdelwahed NAA developed all the sections.


This work was supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research, Vice Presidency for Graduate Studies and Scientific Research, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia [Project No. GRANT, 5430].

Competing Interests

The author declares no competing interests exist.

Additional Material

The following additional material is uploaded at the page of this paper.

1. Appendix.


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