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Open Access Original Research

Determining the Contribution of Physical Activity Constructs in Developing Intention to Exercise among Entrepreneurs

Nadia A. Abdelmegeed Abdelwahed *

  1. Associate Professor, Department of Business Management, College of Business Administration, King Faisal University, Al Hofuf, AIAhsa, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence: Nadia A. Abdelmegeed Abdelwahed

Academic Editors: Ines Testoni, Adriano Zamperini and Lorenza Palazzo

Special Issue: How COVID-19 Changed Individual and Social Life: Psychological and Mental illness Studies on the Pandemic Outcomes

Received: January 08, 2024 | Accepted: April 25, 2024 | Published: May 06, 2024

OBM Neurobiology 2024, Volume 8, Issue 2, doi:10.21926/obm.neurobiol.2402222

Recommended citation: Abdelwahed NAA. Determining the Contribution of Physical Activity Constructs in Developing Intention to Exercise among Entrepreneurs. OBM Neurobiology 2024; 8(2): 222; doi:10.21926/obm.neurobiol.2402222.

© 2024 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is correctly cited.


In the present era, a healthy life is a challenge for everyone. Therefore, diverting individuals' minds towards physical activity and exercise is necessary for the day. This paper proposes to inspect the impact of physical activity on the development of intention to exercise (ITE) among entrepreneurs. The quantitative study collected data from 383 Egyptian entrepreneurs through a survey questionnaire. Most respondents were males (n = 257 or 67.10%) against females (n = 126 or 32.90%). The range of age of the respondents remained as with a majority of respondents were 25-34 (n = 188 or 49.09%); 35-44 (n = 76 or 19.84%); 45-54 (n = 64 or 3.39%); 18-24 (n = 42 or 10.97%), and the minimum respondents were fifty-five and above years of age (n = 13 or 4.35%). Employing path analysis through analysis of moment structures (AMOS), the results unveil a positive impact of self-confidence on physical fitness (SCPF), enjoyment of exercise (EE), and exercise habit for health (EHH) on ITE. On the other hand, the effect of promoting holistic health (PHH) on ITE is negative. The study's findings highlight the importance of addressing psychological factors like self-confidence, enjoyment, and habit formation in promoting exercise intentions. Moreover, there may be a need to reconsider how holistic health is communicated and integrated into exercise programs to ensure a positive impact on individuals' intention to exercise.


Physical activityintention to exerciseself-confidence in physical fitnessenjoyment of exercise; exercise habit for healthentrepreneurs

1. Introduction

In the fast-paced and competitive realm of entrepreneurship, where time is a precious resource and the relentless pursuit of business success often takes precedence, the significance of personal well-being, mainly through regular exercise, tends to be underestimated [1,2]. The relationship between physical health and professional performance has recently garnered considerable attention, sparking a growing interest in comprehending and cultivating the intention to exercise among entrepreneurs [3]. This intention to exercise (ITE) is multifaceted. It refers to the decision or willingness to participate in physical activity or movement [4,5]. It describes a person's intention or decision to participate in sport or exercise for various reasons, such as improving overall health, maintaining good health, maintaining weight, or achieving fitness goals [6]. The desire to exercise is often considered the first step towards a healthy lifestyle. It involves setting clear goals, planning, and participating in regular physical activity.

This goal is essential to encourage people to take the necessary steps to incorporate exercise into their daily lives and reap its benefits. It can be influenced by various constructs, including promoting holistic health (PHH), self-confidence in physical fitness (SCPF), enjoyment of exercise (EE), and exercise habits for health (EHH), among others, as highlighted in existing literature [7,8,9,10].

Despite the wealth of research in this domain, investigations into these factors specific to the context of Egypt still need to be completed. Interestingly, although Egyptian entrepreneurs exhibit significant attitudes and motivation towards exercise intention, engaging in various physical and health-related activities [11,12,13], empirical confirmation of such phenomena is notably absent. The current study empirically explores the impact of factors such as PHH, EHH, SCPF, and EE on ITE within the context of Egyptian entrepreneurs. The study's findings are anticipated to offer valuable insights into ITE, providing a foundation for policymakers to enhance and cultivate the dynamics of PHH, EHH, SCPF, and EE about ITE. Besides, this research investigates the psychological and behavioral determinants influencing entrepreneurs' decisions to prioritize physical activity. This study recognizes the potential benefits for personal health and their ventures' overall success and sustainability; this study sheds light on the crucial interplay between health habits and entrepreneurial traits.

Therefore, recognizing these gaps in the literature, the researcher poses a critical question to ascertain the factors influencing the intention to exercise among Egyptian entrepreneurs:

RQ1: What are the factors that affect ITE among Egyptian entrepreneurs?

As a result, the above literature provides valuable insights into factors such as EHH, EE, attitudes, motivations, SCPF, self-efficacy, physical activity, feasibility, desirability, etc., which positively contribute to developing ITE in various populations and contexts [7,8,9,10]. However, the literature still lacks empirical evidence on Egyptian entrepreneurs, specifically among entrepreneurs [3,14,15,16]. Based on these leading existing gaps and contextual empirical deficiency, the researcher proposed the following figure (Figure 1) for investigation among Egyptian entrepreneurs.

Click to view original image

Figure 1 Model of the study. Source: Developed by the researchers.

1.1 Promoting Holistic Health (PHH) and Intention to Exercise (ITE)

The literature confirms the effect of PHH on ITE in several contexts [17]. According to [18] and [19], holistic movement practices positively affect exercise psychology. Similarly, the empirical assessment of [20] confirms the positive effects of a holistic health program on women's physical activity and mental/spiritual health complements. A pilot study demonstrated that holistic physical exercise is meaningful and significantly enhances physical literacy in inactive adults [21]. [22] Exploring the motivation and levels of physical activity among Chinese middle-aged and older adults adds a cultural dimension that suggests a substantial connection between physical activity and ITE. [23] investigation confirms the positive effects of personality and motivation on exercise participation and quality of life. Recently, the assessment of [24] suggests that the motivation to participate in yoga through an exercise lens adds to the understanding of alternative holistic practices. Applying theory analysis of the Health Promotion Model and motivation in physical activity contributes theoretical insights into the effects of health activities on ITE [25]. Similarly, a qualitative study on engagement with a grassroots, Pacific-led holistic health program provides a practical perspective of their positive correlations [26].

Consequently, the above literature confirms the positive linkages between PHH and ITE in several contexts and respondents. However, the entrepreneurs of Egypt are steed such an empirical investigation. Hence, we propose that:

H1: Promoting holistic health (PHH) positively develops entrepreneurs' intention to exercise (ITE).

1.2 Self-confidence in Physical Fitness (SCPF) and Intention to Exercise (ITE)

SCPF has great significance towards ITE. For instance, [27] reveals that physical literacy mediates self-confidence and motivation for physical activity training and offers a comprehensive approach to physical development. Physical education positively shapes intrinsic motivation, self-confidence, anxiety, and mood states in students engaged in physical activities [28]. [29] unveil the significance of self-efficacy in college students' motivation for physical activity and claim that higher self-efficacy positively influences motivation. [30] suggest the effect of self-confidence, self-motivation, and competition on the maintenance of Chinese athletes under stress is a positive psychological state. Self-confidence positively affects motivation in the context of physical activity behaviors among college students, as suggested by [31]. In the perception of [32], there is a positive connection between imagery and self-confidence among athletes. [33], [34] show a positive relationship between motor skills and body confidence in young people, suggesting that improving abilities play a vital role in building self-confidence. An empirical assessment by [35] demonstrates a positive relationship between fitness, psychosocial well-being, and self-confidence in young men with hemophilia. Self-control psychologically impacts Korean professional basketball players' confidence, satisfaction, and commitment and has a positive effect [36]. [37] claim the positive impact of motivation, self-confidence, and maximum oxygen consumption on basic soccer game skills. Famous researchers [27] demonstrated the positive effect of negative self-confidence on participants' self-confidence in physical activity. Likewise, physical self-description and self-confidence levels of individuals engaging in exercise are positively related [38]. In the same notion, [6] provides a psychometric analysis of the attitudes toward physical activity scale and confirms a significant relationship between attitudes, self-confidence, and physical activity.

As a result, the domain literature confirms the positive linkages between SCPF and ITE in contexts other than those of Egyptian entrepreneurs. By incorporating these elements, we develop a comprehensive hypothesis highlighting the positive linkages between SCPF and ITE. Thus:

H2: Self-confidence in physical fitness (SCPF) positively develops entrepreneurs' intention to exercise (ITE).

1.3 Enjoyment of Exercise (EE) and Intention to Exercise (ITE)

The EE remains the active predictor of ITE throughout several populations and contexts. [2] revealed that both positive and negative aspects of motivation predict exercise enjoyment, intention, and persistence, which ultimately affects the complexity of motivational influences. The theoretical model of [7] suggests that adult exercise behavior is predicted through motivation, self-efficacy, and enjoyment. There is an interconnection between the constructs, such as regulation with intrinsic motivation and exercise enjoyment [39]. [40] show enjoyment dramatically enhances physical exercise. Similarly, the empirical assessment of [41] and [42] suggest that factors such as motivation, sex, age, enjoyment, and anxiety positively predict ITE. The enjoyment and affective responses to exercise are positively and meaningfully associated with each other, enhancing the emotional aspect of physical activity [43]. Likewise, [44] focuses on intrinsic motivation and confirms it as the positive predictor of exercise adherence. The enjoyment during exercise mediates the effects of interventions on exercise adherence, as [45] suggested. [46] assessed physical activity enjoyment, exercise motivation, and physical activity in heart failure patients, revealing insights into these factors in a specific health context. [8] showed that adolescents' self-efficacy, enjoyment, and emotional state are psychological and moving, and they found that these factors positively influence youth behavior. According to [9], motor competence, motivation, and enjoyment in physical education are positively associated with physical activity behaviors. Similarly, [10] confirms the positive role of physical activity, enjoyment, and school performance in learning motivation. The study also found a positive connection between physical activity, academic motivation, and enjoyment.

Consequently, the above literature consistently confirms the relationship between EE and ITE. We expect to confirm these among Egyptian entrepreneurs based on these consistent associations.

H3: Enjoyment of exercise (EE) positively develops entrepreneurs' intention to exercise (ITE).

1.4 Exercise Habit for Health (EHH) and Intention to Exercise (ITE)

The domain literature provides valuable insights into the positive connection between EHH and ITE. [47] confirm the positive association between exercise behavior, intention, and habit strength. In the Malaysian context, profiles of exercise motivation, habits, and academic performance are positively associated [3,48]. [49] study offers the positive impact of exercise motivations on body image and eating habits. The exercise motivation and barriers among diverse age groups confirm demographic variations in motivational factors [50]. The empirical assessment of [51] contributes to the positive effect of habit formation in physical exercise. A longitudinal study by [52] demonstrates a positive relationship between exercise habits, motivation, and intention among new gym members. [53] suggest orthorexic eating behaviors related to exercise addiction and internal motivations. Moreover, [23] presents a behavioral intervention to promote exercise motivation in university settings. Individual passions for exercise intentions, habits, and frequency gradually increase [24]. In the same direction, [25] proved through systematic review and confirmed adolescent motivation and habits as the substantial predictors of physical activity. As a result, based on relationships, we proposed:

H4: Exercise habits for health (EHH) positively develop entrepreneurs' intention to exercise (ITE).

2. Literature Review

The development of entrepreneurs' intention towards exercise is a significant sign of a healthy life and business. Several constructs positively affect ITE and are responsible for a healthier life [1]. Motivation and personality encourage participation in exercise and quality of life [14] through yoga and another healthy exercise lens, along with holistic practices [15]. In the study of [16], ITE can be predicted through physical and health activities. Domain scholars like [18] and [19] demonstrate a positive role of exercise and holistic movement practices in developing psychology and intention towards exercise. A holistic health program positively affects women's physical activity and mental/spiritual health complements [20]. Moreover, holistic physical exercise is meaningful and significantly improves physical literacy [21]. In the perception of [22], physical levels and motivation positively predict physical activity and then develop ITE positively.

Likewise, SCPF positively predicts ITE [54]. Factors such as self-confidence, motivation, and skills are the primary predictors of ITE in physical exercise [37]. According to [27], self-confidence is a valuable construct that positively develops participants' physical performance. Similarly, self-confidence levels and physical self-description of individuals engaging in exercise are meaningfully connected [38]. The attitudes toward physical activity can be developed through self-confidence and physical activity [6]. [27] demonstrate a mediation effect of physical literacy in creating an association between self-confidence and motivation for physical activity. Anxiety, intrinsic motivation, self-confidence, and mood engage individuals in physical activities through physical education [28]. Among college students, self-efficacy positively affects students' motivation and ITE [29].

The EE factor is a valuable source for shaping ITE [2]. [46] assessed physical activity enjoyment, exercise motivation, and physical activity in heart failure patients, revealing insights into these factors in a specific health context. According to [9], athletic ability, motivation, and enjoyment of physical education are related to physical behavior. Similarly, [10] confirmed the positive impact of physical activity, recreation, and schoolwork on academic motivation. The research also found a positive relationship between physical activity, academic motivation, and enjoyment. In the [7] assessment, motivation, self-efficacy, and enjoyment are the enablers of exercise behavior. Intrinsic motivation, exercise enjoyment, and ITE are positively associated [39].

Finally, the EHH factor contributes positively to ITE [3]. According to [53], orthorexic eating behaviors associated with exercise addiction positively affect internal motivations and ITE. Among university students, the behaviors, attitudes, and ITE of students can be affected by exercise motivation [14]. The passion for exercise and individuals' habits meaningfully predict ITE [15,16]. Among physical and sports students, entrepreneurial intention can be developed by perceived self-efficacy, feasibility, and desirability [18].

2.1 Self-determination Theory (SDT)

The SDT has an essential and robust significance in understanding and fostering motivation toward physical activity. This theory highlights the standing of satisfying individuals' psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness in promoting intrinsic motivation and sustained engagement in exercise and sports [55]. According to [56], autonomy, which involves providing choices and control, allows individuals to feel more invested in their physical activities. As discussed in [57], competence is nurtured through supportive coaching and feedback, leading to a sense of capability and confidence in one's abilities. Besides, relatedness, underlined by [58], accentuates the significance of social connections and support in maintaining motivation for physical activity. Interventions based on SDT principles, as evidenced by [59], have been shown to augment motivation and adherence to physical activity programs by addressing these psychological needs. In the perception of [60], motivational processes significantly measure physical activity among adolescents in physical education. To sum it up, SDT offers an inclusive framework for accepting motivation in physical activity contexts, where it stresses competence, autonomy, and affiliation as core constructs in endorsing long-term engagement and enjoyment in exercise and sports.

3. Methods

3.1 Survey Strategy and Respondents

The researcher applied quantitative methods, which are the best methods to prove the problems with facts and numbers. In the previous studies of physical activities and exercise attitudinal and intentional domains, several scholars, like [3,7,9,10,15], applied the same strategy to explore problems of the exact nature.

As respondents, the researcher targeted the entrepreneurs of Egypt, who play a significant role in the economy of Egypt, who are ambitious and take care of their health through exercise and healthy physical activities [11]. The researcher applied both modes of data collection, online and offline, through a survey questionnaire employing the convenience sampling technique. Before collecting responses, the researcher determined the willingness to participate in the study and got an approved consent form from them. They also ensured the privacy and confidentiality of their gained responses only for educational or research purposes. Finally, the researcher collected 383 cases and then applied them to conclusions.

3.2 Reliability and Validity of the Questionnaire

The researcher applied a survey questionnaire as a significant tool for data collection. Hence, its confirmation is necessary to collect large-scale data. The researcher conducted a pilot study by collecting 16 cases to confirm the tool's reliability and validity. Concerning reliability, the researcher ensured internal consistency among items by using Cronbach's alpha reliability. The alpha (α) is a reliable source for researchers to get started with the support of reliable tools. As a result, the overall consistency of the tool through the pilot is found to be satisfactory, where individual factor constancy is also found to be within acceptable ranges (>0.70) [61]. Moreover, the researcher ensured its validity by sending the tool to two university professors. One was well-known quantitative research, and the other was a subject expert in the field, specifically a physical and health science expert. Consequently, both experts suggested some minor modifications, and finally, the researcher launched a valid and reliable tool to collect large-scale data.

3.3 Measures

The researcher adopted all the items of the scale from the literature. More specifically, the promoting holistic health (PHH) factor was measured on four items by [6]. Likewise, the researcher used eight items [6] to assess self-confidence in the physical fitness (SCPF) construct. The exercise habit for health (EHH) was evaluated on three items borrowed from [6]. The enjoyment of exercise (EE) construct is assessed with eleven items [6]. Finally, the primary dependent construct, i.e., intention to exercise (ITE), is evaluated with four items adopted from [62]. The researcher applied a five-point Likert scale with choices strongly agree (1) to strongly agree (5) (see more details in the Appendix below).

4. Analysis

4.1 Respondents' Demography

The demography of the respondents suggests that a total of 383 respondents participated in the study. Regarding gender, most respondents were males (n = 257 or 67.10%) against females (n = 126 or 32.90%). Likewise, the age indicator underlines a majority of respondents were 25-34 (n = 188 or 49.09%), 35-44 (n = 76 or 19.84%), 45-54 (n = 64 or 3.39%), 18-24 (n = 42 or 10.97%), and the minimum respondents were fifty-five and above years of age (n = 13 or 4.35%). The level of education indicator suggests that a majority of respondents had a bachelor's degree (n = 184 or 48.04%), high school/diploma (n = 149 or 38.91%), master's were 12.27% (n = 47), others were 0.52% (n = 2). Only 1% (0.26) had a doctorate education. The entrepreneurial experience indicator of respondents suggests a majority of respondents (n = 126 or 32.90%) had 4-6 years of experience; more than ten years were 22.46% (n=86); 21.67% (n = 83) had 1-3; 15.14% (n = 58) had 7-10, and only 7.83% (n = 30) had less than one year of entrepreneurial experience. Finally, a majority of respondents (n = 122 or 31.85%) demonstrated good health; 31.59% (n = 121) as very good; 22.98% (n = 88) as excellent, 12.01% (n = 46) fair and only 1.57% (n = 6) respondents suggested their poor health status (Table 1).

Table 1 Demographic profile of respondents (n = 383).

4.2 Measurement Model

The researcher used a measurement model to observe the correlations between items and construct levels [61]. The researcher observed all the items which are loaded above the suggested loadings scores (>0.70), while some items (SCPF3, SCPF6, EE3; EE7; EE10) are dropped due to their non-reachability towards acceptable values (>0.70) [61]. Moreover, the researcher observed composite reliability and found within the acceptable ranges for all the constructs (>0.70), along with the acceptance of values of average variance extracted (AVE) (found to be >0.50) [61] for all the constructs applied in the study. Finally, the internal consistency among items was assessed through Cronbach's alpha and found within the suitable ranges (>0.70) for the rest of the constructs (Table 2).

Table 2 Measurement model.

Moreover, the researcher ensured discriminant validity by noticing the multi-collinearity issues among the latent variables through the Fornell and Larcker criterion, which is the best measure of discriminant validity [63]. In addition, the researcher has also drawn attention to the discriminant validity to gauge differences between the latent variables in the Fornell and Larcker model [64]. This measure is the best measure of ensuring discriminant validity [65]. The square root of each construct's AVE is higher than its correlation with another construct (Table 3).

Table 3 Discriminant validity.

4.3 Structural Model

The researcher applied path analysis using AMOS version 27.0. This software is best, as it simultaneously runs the model and provides suitable results [66]. Regarding the hypotheses evaluation, the results suggest a positive effect of self-confidence on physical fitness (SCPF) on intention to exercise (ITE) (H2 = β = 0.511; p < 0.01). As a result, H2 is supported. The researcher noticed a positive effect of enjoyment of exercise (EE) on intention to exercise (ITE), which supported the H3 (H3 = β = 0.480; p < 0.01). Moreover, the effect of exercise habit for health (EHH) on intention to exercise (ITE) is also found to be positive (H4 = β = 0.242; p < 0.01), which also supported the H4. On the other hand, the effect of promoting holistic health (PHH) on intention to exercise (ITE) is found to be negative (H1 = β = -0.040; >0.01). As a result, H1 is rejected (Table 4 and Figure 2).

Click to view original image

Figure 2 Structural equation model. Source: Estimated by the researchers. Note(s): significance level = p < 0.01. PHH = promoting holistic health; SCPF = self-confidence in physical fitness; EE = enjoyment of exercise; EHH = exercise habit for health; ITE = intention to exercise.

Table 4 Structure model.

5. Discussion

The study aimed to investigate the factors of physical activity that affect the intention to exercise among Egyptian entrepreneurs. The researcher focused on demographic factors such as gender, age, educational level, entrepreneurial experience, and health status of the respondents. Concerning confirmation, the study results suggested a positive impact of SCPF on ITE, which is reinforced by the domain literature [6,29,30,32,35,36,37,38]. These findings demonstrate that Egyptian entrepreneurs have confidence in various aspects of physical fitness, including hand-eye coordination, agility, endurance, elegance, balance, strength, rhythm, and flexibility. This establishes an optimistic and motivational framework for individuals contemplating exercise. This confidence contributes to a positive self-perception, fostering higher self-esteem and a greater willingness to engage in physical activities. Individuals who feel assured in their physical abilities are likelier to set and achieve fitness goals driven by motivation and a sense of competence. The enjoyment of exercise is heightened when confidence is present, especially in performing activities elegantly and fearlessly. This positive experience creates a feedback loop, reinforcing the belief that exercise is enjoyable and achievable, thus enhancing the intention to maintain regular physical activity. Moreover, confidence reduces anxiety, facilitates favorable social comparisons, and shapes a good attitude toward exercise.

The findings of the study confirmed a positive effect of EE on ITE. These results align with literature like [9,10,43,45,46], who earlier confirmed these results in several contexts. The positive relationship between enjoyment and the intention to exercise is multifaceted, encompassing social, familial, intrinsic, cognitive, and physical factors among Egyptian entrepreneurs. The belief that classmates and other children enjoy physical activity and the enjoyment derived from exercising with peers creates a powerful social influence encouraging participation. Besides, the perception that parents or guardians find pleasure in physical activity contributes to a positive attitude towards exercise. Intrinsic motivation plays a crucial role, as individuals who look forward to physical activity view it as fun and persist in achieving goals. However, fatigue is more likely to sustain their exercise intentions. Acknowledging cognitive benefits, such as improved school work following physical activity, reinforces the positive connection between enjoyment and exercise. Moreover, the physical well-being outcomes, including feeling better and more robust, enhance the overall positive experience, fostering a solid intention to continue engaging in regular physical activity.

The analysis confirmed a positive effect of EHH on ITE. These results are supported by several scholars [3,49,50,52,53]. These results suggest that entrepreneurs emphasize the importance of dedicating time to be physically active and demonstrate a heightened awareness of the need to prioritize exercise in their daily routines. This acknowledgment reflects a commitment to allocating time for activities contributing to overall well-being. Moreover, they understand the crucial role of physical activity in maintaining good health, which is a powerful motivator. Those who recognize the positive impact of exercise on health are more likely to internalize the value of incorporating regular physical activity into their lifestyles. Their belief in the importance of forming a habit of being physically active signifies a commitment to consistency. Entrepreneurs' habitual exercise engagement is essential to developing sustainable, long-term behaviors.

On the other hand, the findings confirmed a negative relationship between PHH and ITE, which contradicts the domain literature [2,15,17,18,26]. These results suggest that entrepreneurs in Egypt might perceive holistic health practices as time-consuming or demanding, discouraging them from engaging in specific exercise activities. Their lack of awareness or interest in the holistic benefits of aerobic exercise, coupled with potential financial barriers and concerns about accessibility and convenience, could also contribute to this negative association. Moreover, the influence of social norms, conflicting priorities, and the absence of personalized holistic health promotion strategies may further diminish individuals' motivation to integrate regular aerobic exercise into their routines. Understanding these factors and tailoring holistic health promotion efforts to address these concerns could foster a more positive relationship between PHH and ITE.

6. Conclusion

The study's findings conclude that SCPF, EE, and EHH positively impact ITE among Egyptian entrepreneurs. This suggests that entrepreneurs with higher levels of self-confidence are more likely to engage in regular physical activity, enjoy exercise, and establish a consistent exercise routine for their health. Entrepreneurs also feel enjoyment from taking part in the exercise. Exercise becomes their daily routine or habit, diverting their intention to exercise repeatedly. On the other hand, a contrasting finding regarding the effect of PHH on ITE indicates that the efforts to promote holistic health may not necessarily translate to a higher intention to exercise. The study highlights the importance of self-confidence in encouraging physical fitness, enjoyment of exercise, and forming an exercise habit for health. Besides, promoting holistic health may not directly correlate with an increased intention to exercise, signaling the need for a nuanced approach when designing interventions or programs to promote physical activity.

The study provides significant practical implications. To enhance exercise adherence and overall health outcomes, interventions, and fitness programs should prioritize strategies to boost individuals' self-confidence and ensure that physical activities are enjoyable. Emphasizing the long-term benefits of exercise habits for health is crucial, and efforts should be made to tailor interventions to individuals' preferences and needs. Additionally, a nuanced approach to health promotion is essential, recognizing that a broad focus on holistic health may be less effective in motivating exercise intentions. Educational campaigns can be crucial in raising awareness about the interconnectedness of self-confidence, enjoyment, and exercise habits with long-term well-being, guiding individuals toward personalized and sustainable approaches to physical activity.

Theoretical implications of the revealed results can contribute to advancing existing models and theories related to health behavior and exercise psychology. The positive association between self-confidence, enjoyment of exercise, and exercise habits for health aligns with the self-determination theory and social cognitive theories, emphasizing the role of self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation in shaping behavior. These findings underscore the importance of incorporating psychological factors into theoretical frameworks guiding health promotion efforts. The negative effect of promoting holistic health on exercise intention challenges a simplistic view of health promotion models that assume a universal positive impact of holistic approaches. This highlights the need for a more nuanced understanding of how diverse aspects of health promotion may interact and influence individuals' intentions to engage in exercise. Theoretical frameworks should consider the complexity of motivational dynamics, acknowledging that a one-size-fits-all approach may not capture the intricacies of individuals' attitudes and preferences toward holistic health. Future research could explore the interplay between various psychological and holistic factors within exercise behavior, contributing to refining and expanding existing theoretical models in health psychology and behavioral science.

The study is restricted to a few limitations as it only used quantitative methods. It is limited to a few constructs, such as PHH, SCPF, EE, and EHH towards ITE. The survey respondents only targeted Egyptian entrepreneurs, who were contacted using convenience sampling. The researcher applied only online and offline data collection modes through a questionnaire. Finally, the study concludes based on 383 samples only.

In the future, longitudinal data should be utilized for more authentic and reliable results. Future researchers must consider other factors such as the need to achieve healthy fitness, attitudes towards exercise, satisfaction through exercise, exercise benefits, etc. Related theories, such as TPB, expectancy theory, and Maslow's Hierarchy theory, must be considered to investigate the individual's motivations, attitudes, and intentions regarding physical activity. Future studies may target other respondents, such as health practitioners, faculty members, business people, and ordinary individuals. A large sample size should also be considered in future studies.



The researcher sincerely thankful to the Deanship of Scientific Research, Vice Presidency for Graduate Studies and Scientific Research, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia for providing the funds. The researcher also appreciates the respondents who gave their precious time for providing their valuable responses.

Author Contributions

Abdelwahed NAA developed all the sections.


This work was supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research, Vice Presidency for Graduate Studies and Scientific Research, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia [Project No. GRANTA146].

Competing Interests

The author declares no competing interests exist.


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