OBM Genetics is an international Open Access journal published quarterly online by LIDSEN Publishing Inc. It accepts papers addressing basic and medical aspects of genetics and epigenetics and also ethical, legal and social issues. Coverage includes clinical, developmental, diagnostic, evolutionary, genomic, mitochondrial, molecular, oncological, population and reproductive aspects. It publishes research articles, reviews, communications and technical notes, etc. There is no restriction on the length of the papers and we encourage scientists to publish their results in as much detail as possible.
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Rapid publication: manuscripts are undertaken in 8.5 days from acceptance to publication (median values for papers published in this journal in the first half of 2019, 1-2 days of FREE language polishing time is also included in this period).
Genetic Screening of Cervical Cancer
Submission Deadline: June 30, 2021 (Open) Submit Now
Dr. Ciro Comparetto
Division of Obstetric and Gynecology, San Paolo Private Clinic, Pistoia, Italy
Research Interests: gynecologic oncology; gynecologic surgery; cervical cancer screening and prevention
Prof. Dr. Franco Borruto
Consultant in Public Health, Department of Social Affairs, Principality of Monaco.
Research Interests: gynecologic endocrinology; gynecologic surgery; cervical cancer screening and prevention
About This Topic
Medical genetics plays an increasingly important role in the screening and prevention of numerous diseases. To this end, it is of critical importance to develop effective screening and prevention programs and improve disease susceptibility assessment. The development of screening and prevention programs depends on the identification of early biomarkers (including functional and behavioral) of the risk and onset of the disease and such programs need to be designed according to internationally accepted criteria. Cervical cancer still represents a very relevant disease from the health and social point of view; in fact, around 528,000 new cases are diagnosed every year in the world and of these 85% in developing countries, where it represents almost 12% of all female cancers. Substantial reductions in the incidence and mortality from cervical cancer have been observed after the introduction of prevention campaigns with the implementation of cervical screening programs through Papanicolaou (Pap) tests and in particular following the introduction of organized programs, which guarantee a high level of screening coverage as well as the quality and continuity of diagnostic-therapeutic procedures. It is estimated that Pap smear screening every 3-5 years provides 80% protection against the onset of cancer. Advances in diagnostic techniques, in particular the development of easy-to-use molecular genetic tests, are replacing the use of the established Pap smear as a screening tool. This has been made possible thanks to the discovery in 1975 that some cellular morphological changes (coilocytosis) were related to the presence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection. HPV test is always performed on a small sample of cells taken from the cervix, such as Pap test, but it is not a morphological exam but a molecular biology exam that allows to detect the presence of HPV by identifying its deoxy-ribonucleic acid (DNA) or messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). The results of numerous experimental studies demonstrate a greater sensitivity of the test compared to traditional Pap test at the expense, however, of a lower specificity due to two main factors: 1) HPV test is based on the search for the types of viruses that have a greater oncogenic potential; and 2) HPV test does not discriminate between transient infections and persistent and productive infections. The most widely used molecular tests are based on the search for HPV sequences and typing of genotypes using molecular biology techniques, such as direct hybridization, qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and viral nucleotide sequencing.
cervical cancer; genetics; screening; prevention; Human Papillomavirus; molecular biology; pap smear; coilocytosis; biomarkers
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