OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine is an international peer-reviewed Open Access journal published quarterly online by LIDSEN Publishing Inc. It covers all evidence-based scientific studies on integrative, alternative and complementary approaches to improving health and wellness.

Topics contain but are not limited to:

  • Acupuncture
  • Acupressure
  • Acupotomy
  • Bioelectromagnetics applications
  • Pharmacological and biological treatments including their efficacy and safety
  • Diet, nutrition and lifestyle changes
  • Herbal medicine
  • Homeopathy
  • Manual healing methods (e.g., massage, physical therapy)
  • Kinesiology
  • Mind/body interventions
  • Preventive medicine
  • Research in integrative medicine
  • Education in integrative medicine
  • Related policies

It publishes a variety of article types: Original Research, Review, Communication, Opinion, Comment, Conference Report, Technical Note, Book Review, etc.

There is no restriction on paper length, provided that the text is concise and comprehensive. Authors should present their results in as much detail as possible, as reviewers are encouraged to emphasize scientific rigor and reproducibility.

Indexing: DOAJ-Directory of Open Access Journals.

Publication Speed (median values for papers published in 2023): Submission to First Decision: 5.9 weeks; Submission to Acceptance: 14.7 weeks; Acceptance to Publication: 8 days (1-2 days of FREE language polishing included)

Special Issue

Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT) - New Insights and Outcomes

Submission Deadline: December 31, 2022 (Closed) Submit Now

Guest Editor

Chris Irons, PhD

Clinical Psychologist & Director, Balanced Minds, UK; Visiting Lecturer, University College London (UCL), UK.

Website | E-Mail

Research interests: Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT); Compassionate Mind Training (CMT); self-compassion; self-criticism; shame; attachment

About This Topic

Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT) and Compassionate Mind Training (CMT) are rapidly growing approaches that show potential in reducing distress and suffering in both clinical and non-clinical populations. This special issue will showcase emerging CFT research and developments in the field of CFT. This will including those linked to measurement of compassion (and other common CFT measures, e.g. shame, self-criticism), understanding about the three flows of compassion (to others, from others, to self), the fears, blocks and resistances to compassion, the impact of compassionate mind training (CMT) exercises, user experience and reflections on CFT and CMT, along with outcome research of the changes reported following CMT and CFT sessions.

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted through the LIDSEN Submission System. Detailed information on manuscript preparation and submission is available in the Instructions for Authors. All submitted articles will be thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process and will be processed following the Editorial Process and Quality Control policy. Upon acceptance, the article will be immediately published in a regular issue of the journal and will be listed together on the special issue website, with a label that the article belongs to the Special Issue. LIDSEN distributes articles under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) License in an open-access model. The authors own the copyright to the article, and the article can be free to access, distribute, and reuse provided that the original work is correctly cited.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). Research articles and review articles are highly invited. Authors are encouraged to send the tentative title and abstract of the planned paper to the Editorial Office (icm@lidsen.com) for record. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact the Editorial Office.

Welcome your submission!


Open Access Research Article

The Relationship between Self-Compassion and Predictors of Depressed Mood in Parents of People with Eating Disorders

Received: 18 February 2023;  Published: 05 January 2024;  doi: 10.21926/obm.icm.2401004


The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between self-compassion and possible predictors of depressed mood in parents of people with eating disorders. A questionnaire design was conducted cross‐sectionally in a sample of 112 parents of people with eating disorders. Participants completed measures of depressed mood, experiences [...]
Open Access Original Research

Bringing the Inside Out and the Outside in: The Therapeutic Relationship in Compassion Focused Therapy Chairwork

Received: 01 July 2023;  Published: 19 September 2023;  doi: 10.21926/obm.icm.2303037


Chairwork is a central component in Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT). Despite its importance, there has been no prior research on the relational factors underpinning the application of chairwork in CFT. There is also a general paucity of research on the role of the therapeutic relationship in chairwork across modalities. This paper analyses [...]
Open Access Concept Paper

Using Structured Compassion Focused Formulations Towards Change in Couples and Organisations

Received: 08 February 2022;  Published: 20 July 2023;  doi: 10.21926/obm.icm.2303030


The current article describes the application of the Compassion Focussed (CF) formulation to the interaction between individuals and their social context. The standard CF formulation [1] would see the person’s fears as inadvertently reinforced by their attempts to cope with the underlying issue. However, sometimes such attempts to cope can [...]
Open Access Case Report

Employee Support During COVID-19 Using Compassionate Mind Training

Received: 15 November 2022;  Published: 17 February 2023;  doi: 10.21926/obm.icm.2301015


An individual’s wellbeing at work is now recognised as key, particularly for those in challenging environment’s such as health and social care. Focusing on the cultivation of (mindful) compassion has been shown to be an effective way of improving mental health. This service evaluation focused on a pilot drop-in group for council and NHS [...]
Open Access Research Article

Compassionate Mind Training Group Programme: Implementation and Evaluation within an NHS Physical Health & Rehabilitation Psychology Service

Received: 29 July 2022;  Published: 16 January 2023;  doi: 10.21926/obm.icm.2301006


There is increasing evidence for the effectiveness of brief, group-based compassionate mind training (CMT) in reducing shame and self-criticism, and increasing self-compassion. The current evaluation of an 8-week CMT group programme in an NHS Physical Health Psychology Service supports these findings. Based on a cross-diagnostic sample of [...]
Open Access Short Report

Compassion-Focused Therapy and People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Renewed Focus

Received: 06 March 2022;  Published: 04 January 2023;  doi: 10.21926/obm.icm.2301002


Compassion-Focused Therapy is an integrative therapeutic model with a wealth of evidence behind its efficacy. Its accessibility leads it to be a helpful therapeutic modality for the intellectual disability population. Its ability to aid the understanding of the person, us as clinicians, and the wider context around us give a depth of understan [...]
Open Access Opinion

The Way is in Training: Martial Arts-informed Compassionate Mind Training to enhance CFT Therapists’ Compassionate Competencies

Received: 31 July 2022;  Published: 04 January 2023;  doi: 10.21926/obm.icm.2301001


Traditional Martial Arts practice(s) can be construed as forms of fully embodied Compassionate Mind Training (CMT). Integration of these body-mind systems can be a powerful means to cultivate and entrain important therapist competencies in compassionate engagement and action. Through such training and personal practice, compassion-focused [...]
Open Access Original Research

Comparing People’s Experience of Therapy for Complex Trauma Across Three Modalities: Face-to-Face, Mixed, and Online

Received: 29 July 2022;  Published: 18 November 2022;  doi: 10.21926/obm.icm.2204051


To compare client response to a 3-stage phased intervention for complex trauma, comparing (1) those who received face-to-face intervention with (2) those who received a hybrid of face-to-face moving mid-therapy to online intervention with (3) those who received online only. Comparing quantitative and qualitative outcome data from 3 consecutive [...]
Open Access Research Article

Evaluation of a Virtual Compassionate Living Group for Patients with Chronic Pain

Received: 26 May 2022;  Published: 14 November 2022;  doi: 10.21926/obm.icm.2204050


Chronic pain affects around 28 million people in the UK. Those living with chronic pain can frequently experience internalised self-stigma and negative self-evaluations as a result of the pain itself and due to difficult life experiences. Previous research has found Compassion Focused Therapy to be effective for people living with long term [...]
Open Access Project Report

A Service Based Evaluation of Compassion Focused Group Therapy Within a Community Mental Health Team Setting

Received: 29 July 2022;  Published: 03 November 2022;  doi: 10.21926/obm.icm.2204048


The current paper explores the impact of Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT) when delivered in a group setting to people with a range of diagnoses presenting to a Community Mental Health Team. In total five groups of 14 to 18 sessions were run with an average of five participants completing each group. A range of self-report measures examining [...]
Open Access Original Research

A Qualitative Study Exploring the Impact the Self-Compassion App Has on Levels of Compassion, Self-Criticism, and Wellbeing

Received: 25 May 2022;  Published: 26 September 2022;  doi: 10.21926/obm.icm.2203045


Self-guided, smartphone apps may be helpful in reducing symptoms associated with psychological distress and may boost wellbeing, and levels of compassion. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the impact a 28-day app based on Compassion Focused Therapy and Compassionate Mind Training has on participant’s levels of compassion [...]
Open Access Research Article

Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Compassionate Engagement and Action Scales (CEAS) in the UK General Population

Received: 06 July 2021;  Published: 07 September 2022;  doi: 10.21926/obm.icm.2203039


Research has shown that compassion – whether to others, from others or to oneself – can be associated with improved well-being and mental health. Most measures to date focus on one of these flows of compassion, with only one recently published scale tracking all three. The [...]
Open Access Review

A Scoping Literature Review on Compassion-Focused Therapy for Individuals with Intellectual Disability

Received: 30 May 2022;  Published: 24 August 2022;  doi: 10.21926/obm.icm.2203037


Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are at a higher risk of shame and self-criticism and tend to make downward social comparisons. Compassion-focused therapy (CFT) is commonly used to address these issues in the general population, however, information on the adaptability and effectiveness of CFT for individuals with ID is limited [...]
Open Access Research Article

Living Well with Illness: Evaluation of a Transdiagnostic Compassion-Focused Therapy Group for Long-Term Health Conditions

Received: 31 May 2022;  Published: 10 August 2022;  doi: 10.21926/obm.icm.2203035


This study presents a mixed methods evaluation of a transdiagnostic Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT) group intervention, for adults with long-term health conditions (LTHCs). It aims to assess whether group completion was associated with improved outcomes in mood, overall well-being and the extent of LTHC interference in confidence [...]
Open Access Original Research

Experiences of Patients With Hashimoto Thyroiditis Through the Lens of Compassion

Received: 09 January 2022;  Published: 12 July 2022;  doi: 10.21926/obm.icm.2203027


Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune disease affecting mainly middle-aged women. Hormonal replacement is the most common therapy; however, it tackles only the functionality of the thyroid and not the autoimmunity components. Thus, patients experience persistent somatic and psychological symptoms, thereby affecting their quality of life [...]
Open Access Original Research

Compassion Focused Psychosexual Therapy for Women Who Experience Pain during Sex

Received: 16 October 2021;  Published: 14 April 2022;  doi: 10.21926/obm.icm.2202017


Genito-Pelvic Pain Penetration Disorder (GPPPD) affects between eight and twenty percent of women. There is recent evidence that compassion focused therapy (CFT) can help those with general health conditions and persistent pain. This study aims to investigate application of CFT techniques to an existing psychosexual therapy group [...]
Open Access Research Article

Developing Self-Compassion Online: Assessing the Efficacy and Feasibility of a Brief Online Intervention

Received: 21 September 2021;  Published: 21 December 2021;  doi: 10.21926/obm.icm.2104056


The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and feasibility of a newly designed online self-compassion training programme for the general public. Two hundred and forty-nine participants were randomly assigned to have either immediate or delayed access to a four-week online self-compassion training programme. This programme was based on [...]
Open Access Original Research

‘A Way of Being in the World’: An Exploration of the Experience of Developing Self-Compassion through Online Training

Received: 21 September 2021;  Published: 23 November 2021;  doi: 10.21926/obm.icm.2104050


Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT) has increasingly been shown to have a positive impact for people experiencing a range of difficulties, and online self-help formats could provide a way of increasing its accessibility and scalability. This study explored adult participants’ subjective experiences of engaging with online self-compassion traini [...]