Table of Contents

Volume 2,Issue 4

Open Access Review

Sleep Disorders in Children with Central Nervous System Tumors

Received: 13 November 2018;  Published: 16 December 2018;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.1804017


Sleep complaints are common in pediatric patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors. These problems may result from disruption of normal homeostatic, circadian, neuroendocrine, and cardiorespiratory pathways and vary by tumor location and treatment received. Children with tumors within the hypothalamus and surrounding regions are prone to excessive daytime sleepiness. Sleep-related breathing disorders, especially those involving abnormal control of breathing, may occur in patients with tu [...]

Open Access Original Research

TTF-1-Expressing Supratentorial Embryonal Tumors (PNET): A Clinicopathologic Study of Two Cases and Literature Review of TTF-1-Positive Primary Brain Tumors

Received: 07 October 2018;  Published: 14 November 2018;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.1804016


Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) is a nuclear polypeptide, tissue-restricted member of the homeobox protein family, that when attached to DNA plays a crucial role in regulating the expression of select genes during early embryonic development of the thyroid, lung, and brain. As often happens, the initial enthusiasm for the diagnostic value of TTF-1 as a selective immunohistochemical marker of lung and thyroid tumors began to dwindle, its wider use led its demonstration in tumors arising f [...]

Open Access Review

Angiocentric Glioma: A Review of Clinicopathologic Features

Received: 04 September 2018;  Published: 05 November 2018;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.1804015


Along with focal cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis and remote infarcts, tumors are a well known cause of medically intractable or pharmacoresistent epilepsy [1-3]. Most of the tumors encountered in this setting represent low grade glioneuronal neoplasms, particularly gangliogliomas and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors. In 2005, Wang and colleagues reported on 8 tumors which they designated as so-called “monomorphous angiocentric gliomas” [4]. The title of their paper suggested [...]

Open Access Case Report

A Case Series of Temozolomide in the Management of Refractory Prolactinomas

Received: 12 October 2018;  Published: 01 November 2018;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.1804014


Objective: To report three cases of refractory prolactinomas treated with Temozolomide (TMZ). Background: Prolactinomas account for 40% of pituitary adenomas. Dopamine agonists (DA) are the first line of treatment followed by surgical resection and radiation. TMZ is an oral chemotherapeutic agent used in gliomas, which has been given to patients with prolactinomas refractory to conventional treatments. Methods: Retrospective chart review was conducted for refractory prolactinoma patients treated [...]

Open Access Research Article

Isolated Diffusion Restriction Preceding Contrast Enhancement in Glioblastoma Multiforme is Associated with Short-Term Survival

Received: 07 August 2018;  Published: 25 October 2018;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.1804013


Background: Current imaging standard for detecting and assessing glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) progression depends on contrast-enhancement on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Isolated foci of diffusion restriction have been observed to precede enhancement in GBM. The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency of isolated diffusion restriction that precede corresponding enhancement and to investigate if isolated diffusion restriction was associated with survival in patients with GBM [...]

Open Access Review

Craniopharyngiomas: An Appropriate Surgical Treatment based on Topographical and Pathological Concepts

Received: 11 September 2018;  Published: 15 October 2018;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.1804012


Treatment of craniopharyngiomas (CPs) represents a neurosurgical challenge, the major reason being their close relationship with the hypothalamus and the third ventricle (3V) boundaries. Nevertheless, CPs are generally defined as “suprasellar” lesions, an imprecise and frequently faulty term. Despite being heterogeneous lesions, CPs are actually characterized by repeating pathological patterns which depend on their point of origin along the pituitary-hypothalamic axis. Preoperative understanding [...]