Recent Progress in Nutrition is an international peer-reviewed Open Access journal published quarterly online by LIDSEN Publishing Inc. This periodical is devoted to publishing high-quality papers that describe the most significant and cutting-edge research in all areas of nutritional sciences. Its aim is to provide timely, authoritative introductions to current thinking, developments and research in carefully selected topics. Also, it aims to enhance the international exchange of scientific activities in nutritional science and human health.
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Does diet temperature contribute to energy intake? Call for study protocols
Submission Deadline: October 31, 2023 (Open) Submit Now
Reza Rastmanesh, PhD
American Physical Society, Maryland, MD, United States.
The Nutrition Society, London, UK
Research interests: Diet temperature; energy intake; energy conservation; heat shock proteins; clinical trial; design of study
About This Topic
First law of thermodynamics, also known as Law of Conservation of Energy, states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed in an isolated system. The human body has its own mechanisms to adapt to changing temperatures; however, it is possible that greater or lower temperatures of food and beverages (referred to as dietary temperature), impose some implications on the energy demands of the body. Based on diet composition, chewing habits, amount of fluids (and their corresponding temperature) ingested, the human body is exposed to a wide range of temperatures. This exposure affects the whole gastrointestinal tract, being greatest at the mouth followed by the esophagus and stomach, with the latter exposed at a greater time course. Indeed, there has been several studies relating dietary temperatures to gastric function, frequency of gastric myoelectrical activity, gastric emptying time, gastrin release, gastric acid secretion, esophageal cancer, and intraluminal upper gastrointestinal temperature and motility. Although when it comes to energy metabolism, it has been assumed that greater dietary temperatures are dissipated during digestion and do not contribute to energy balance.
One of the most immediate responses body cells have to greater temperatures is induction and increased synthesis of Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs), especially HSP70 and HSP90. HSP70 and HSP90 possess N-terminal ATPase fragment at their end and tightly regulate ATPase activity and ATP hydrolysis, providing the heat energy at to drive ADP → ATP process. Indeed, cells exposed to greater temperatures increase HSP activity, and the time-profile of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes HSP70 response to in vitro heat shock is temperature-dependent. For instance, with in vitro hyperthermic conditions (40-41°C degrees), the time-course was characterized by a sharp rise in HSP70 concentrations immediately after heat shock treatment (P < 0.05 for 40 degrees C at 0 h), followed by a steady and progressive decline over time.
It is shown that HSPs can extract energy from the environment (here, dietary temperatures) and thereby, contribute to energy balance. On the other hand, water has characteristically high heat capacity, indicating that temperature of ingested fluids and meals should contribute to energy homeostasis, although it is possible that much of the thermal energy in food is dissipated once ingested and does not contribute to energy balance. However, underlying molecular mechanisms by which diet temperature might contribute to energy balance is yet to be explored. It can be hypothesized that the temperature of ingested foods/fluids may influence energy homeostasis through expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs), especially HSP70 and HSP90, which are expressed to a greater extent in obesity and known to cause deficits in glucose metabolism. It is meanwhile possible that other mechanisms are involved.
To date, no experimental animal studies or clinical trials are available regarding potential effects of hot meals and fluids on weight status nor about its confounding effects in data analysis. To find out potential mechanism, there is an indispensable need to conduct animal studies and clinical trials. We have elsewhere proposed a randomized protocol to experimentally test this hypothesis.
This Research Topic is aimed at discovering forms of unrecognized bias brought about by the diet temperature in physiologic, nutritional and metabolic studies. It is hoped that it will help to uncover diet temperature related biases in the interpretation of physiologic studies, clinical findings, methodological practices, registered clinical trials, cohort studies and comparative studies. We call for original papers, study protocols, simulated experiments and synthetic reviews and opinions as a basis for future studies exploring the potential mechanisms by which greater temperatures of foods and beverages might influence energy balance in humans and animal models under physiological and pathological conditions. It is expected that submitted manuscripts will provide novel technical and methodological insight. This Research Topic would like to explore diet temperature related bias in clinical and preclinical articles focusing on but not limited to the following topics:
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